• Users Online: 111
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-72

Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review


1 Department of Ayurvedic Pharmacy Research Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission30-Aug-2016
Date of Acceptance03-Oct-2016
Date of Web Publication19-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dev Nath Singh Gautam
Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2468-838X.196079

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Realgar has been not only well-known poisons but also used as healing agent. Realgar has long been used in traditional medicines for different diseases; so far arsenic can be extremely toxic and carcinogenic. In Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines arsenic usually comes from conscious addition for healing purposes, mostly in the form of mineral arsenicals with orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenic trioxide (As2O3). Pharmacological studies revealed that realgar is effective against in different cancer cell line. However, it has been critically limited clinical applications because of its many disadvantages, for example, low solubility in water, high toxicity, poor gastrointestinal absorption, and bioavailability. This review evaluates the toxicology, bioaccessibility, and pharmacology of the realgar used in Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines. In recent times, numerous types of realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed due to insolubility of realgar in water and different media. Most of the NPs of realgar possess the exclusive optical qualities of quantum dots. The pharmacological activities and bioavailability of realgar NPs are much more partial by their sizes, building realgar an exciting biomedical and pharmaceutical research applicant.

Keywords: Bioaccessibility, cancer, nanoparticles, realgar


How to cite this article:
Sharma V, Singh NK, Gautam DN. Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2016;1:69-72

How to cite this URL:
Sharma V, Singh NK, Gautam DN. Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jul 17];1:69-72. Available from: http://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2016/1/2/69/196079

In recent years, Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines are becoming progressively popular as substitute and supplementary medicine.[1],[2] Arsenic compounds had an extensive Janus-type interface with humanity. On one side, they have been widely utilized; however, on the other hand, their toxic properties have cause misery and numerous deaths. Therapeutic effects of arsenic substances have also been shown.[3] Traditionally, the medicinal use of arsenic has undergone four improvement stages: (1) Early on start at about 100 BC, (2) affluence during the 19th century, (3) turn down in the early 20th century, and (4) stimulation in current decades. At the present time, it has been well documented that both advantage and risk of arsenic are severely dependent on the individual chemical forms of arsenic in place of arsenic content alone.[4] Different health hazards, including skin lesions,[5],[6] hypertension,[7] cardiovascular diseases,[8],[9] cancers,[10] diabetes[11] as well as cognitive impairment[12] can induce by exposure of chronic arsenic. Humans are usually exposed to inorganic arsenic throughout air,[13] food[14] or water.[15] Contact to inorganic arsenic from arsenical drugs is also common in recent time[16],[17] and should not be disregarded. Since earliest period in India and China, arsenic has been used as a curative agent. Using a poison to battle against another poison, or a mixture of different poisons together to balance with each other is a common concept in Indian as well as Chinese medicine.[17] The challenge is that realgar has a long and notable history of pharmacological value. This perception will first assess the available database on realgar in traditional medicines and then effort to evaluate their hazard in light of their possible advantage.


  Use of Realgar in Traditional Medicines Top


Realgar has been studied as a drug for the treatment of cancer. More than 1500 years in India and China, it has been used as traditional medicine and also more than 90% tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide containing in ore crystal realgar. However, it is solubility bioavailability and consequently is major disadvantage to using this mineral origin drug. It has been less poisonous than arsenic trioxide and poorly soluble in water. A clinical study has been done on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients; they demonstrate that realgar was extremely effective and safe for diagnosed and relapsed patients with APL after oral administration.[18] In Chinese, pharmacopeia processed realgar was found to be 98.56% (As = 78.0% w/w and S = 21.1% w/w) but when it was purified according to the Indian ancient text was found to be 86.46% (As = 62.22% w/w and S = 27.24% w/w).[19],[20],[21] in earliest Chinese and Indian medicine, it was usually applied as a poison to molest another poison or as a drug to treat different ailments.[22] In current time, realgar has been well well-known to be clinically effective for healing of different forms of cancer in vitro and in vivo.[23],[24] However, it has been many disadvantages, for example, low solubility in water, high toxicity, poor gastrointestinal absorption, and bioavailability so it has been critically limited clinical applications.[25],[26]


  Toxicity of Realgar Top


Arsenical compounds are well-known as Poisons of the King since olden period; it produced many hazardous effect in the body like respiratory liver toxicity skin lesions as well as most importantly the carcinogenic prospective.[27],[28] Previous it has been mentioned that realgar must be micronized following the recommended procedures. Dosage of realgar is recommended to be 0.05-0.1 g/person in Chinese Pharmacopeia (Chinese Pharmacopeia, 1995 edition), as regards ten time lower than that of 0.3-1.0 g which was suggested 30 years ago (Chinese Pharmacopeia, 1963 edition) but in the Indian classical text 3.9-7.8 mg/person.[29] The oral LD50 of a single dose of realgar was found to be 3.2 g/kg body in mice. Whereas oral LD50 of single dose of arsenic trioxide was found to be 0.033-0.039 g/kg which are about 100 time higher than realgar.[30] Using mice of realgar in vivo acute and chronic toxicity studies was done on two formulations which are mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine (An Gong Niu Huang Wan and Liu Shen Wan) in which realgar was found to be 10% and 13%, respectively.[31],[32] In this study, sodium arsenite and arsenate is used as positive control; result suggested that both formulations were significantly less toxic than positive control.


  Low Bioaccessibility and Its Improvement Top


Realgar nanoparticles (NPs) dissolution test was performed by the novel wet milling method. Finding result suggested that NPs absorb in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids 10% more than raw realgar.[33] In cancer treatment, route and time of administration of continuing use of a drug are important factors that could affect patients compliance. After diagnose of APL patients, the adverse effects of realgar was found to be including mild skin disturbance, asymptomatic QTc prolongation, gastrointestinal discomfort, and transient elevation in liver enzyme levels.[18] In severity of many diseases, realgar toxicity profiles were found tolerable. The preliminary total on a daily basis dosage of realgar was equally divided into 4 doses before achieving the hematology complete diminution was 50 mg/kg b.w. in the clinical study through the 6-year treatment no severe persistent toxicity was observed in that period. Quick oral absorption of realgar was recommended, a daily dosage of 50 mg/kg b.w. with constant administration of realgar and also increased accumulation of arsenic in hair as well as little amount of arsenic absorbed from the intestinal tract each day by each patient. However, in this study, metabolites of realgar were not recognized in humans. The adverse effects of realgar were usually tolerable and reversible even though the dose- and time-dependent toxicity events of realgar-containing medicines have been reported rarely.[34] Long-term arsenic toxicity can be observed in fatty liver which is liver is a most important target organ of the body. In humans, after long-term use of realgar may reason of fatty liver, but no dysfunction and liver fibrosis were observed.[35] Niu Huang Jie Du Pian a Chinese traditional medicine after long-term use skin lesions, liver and kidney damage were caused.[36] Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of realgar are very poor. In another study, after administration of realgar only 0.6% of realgar was free into simulated gastric juice[37] and bioaccessibility of realgar was found to be 0.6% into the simulated gastric juice which is low as 0.6%, consistent with another finding.[38] After administration of Niu Huang Jie Du Pian a traditional Chinese medicine is used as a tablet in each tablet 7% ± 1% of arsenic contain in the form of realgar.[39] Taken these collectively explanation indicates that when realgar is applied therapeutically, the absorptive uptake transversely the gastrointestinal tract probable a potential problem. Above finding result possibly raises a question about the low bioavailability of realgar: the mild toxicity of realgar is due to the less bioavailability or its low toxic nature? In recently, different nanosized realgar particles were prepared to improve the bioavailability because of unprocessed realgar. To evaluate the untreated realgar powders available commercially; the slighter realgar particles did get better the bioavailability as manifested by total arsenic content has been an increase in the urinary excretion.[40],[41] However, the systemic pharmacokinetic study of nanosized realgar has not been achieved.


  Pharmacology Top


After oral administration (150 mg/kg) of realgar for 5 weeks in experimental rats showed that just a small portion of arsenic was absorbed and reached the blood (45 mg/mL), lung (5.4 mg/g), spleen (5.2 mg/g), and liver (2.9 mg/g).[42] To conquer the low solubility and poor bioavailability, nanoparticles of realgar have been prepared by cryogrinding with polyvinylpyrrolidone and SDS, along with arsenic solubility can greatly be increased compared with untreated realgar powder. In vitro and in vivo study nanoparticles of realgar show significant increases in bioavailability. In experimental rats, it has been observed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg p.o., 70% nanoparticles and untreated realgar 25% increase in urinary improvement of arsenic.[40] After external treatment nanocrystallized realgar gives suitable therapeutic effects for the patients of skin cancer or skin metastasis by inhibiting A431 proliferation.[43]1 H-NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from realgar after intragastrical administration (1 g/kg body weight) treated animals showed that higher dose and long-term use of realgar produce toxicity.[44] By 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide assay, nanoparticles of realgar could significantly restrain the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 value was 5.67 μM. These results recommended that such in the development of apoptotic induction membrane toxicity induced by realgar might participated a significant role and could be measured as one of fundamental mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of realgar.[45] By suppressing angiogenesis nanoparticles of realgar may provide a less toxic agent for anti-neoplasia.[46] Realgar is much less toxic than arsenite and arsenate.[32] The LC50 of realgar ranged from 250 to1500 μM, both cinnabar and realgar are much less toxic than well-known mercurial and arsenicals.[47] Effect of sizes is much more influenced NPs as well as its activities and bioavailability.[48] In vitro cytotoxic effects of NPs on human ovarian and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines were examined. IC50 values were found to be most sensitive cancer cell lines less than 1 μM after treatment with realgar. In vivo study suggested that a significant increase in urinary improvement of arsenic was observed in albino rats after a single oral administration of realgar particle suspension which is prepared by the cryogrinding method.[40] In vitro cytotoxic effects of realgar were performed on K562 and fresh chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) mononuclear cells. Realgar significantly inhibits these cell lines. This finding result also recommended that realgar may be a useful agent for the treatment of CML.[49] Treatment with nanoparticles of realgar is considerably low cell viability compared with untreated realgar particles. These results recommended that nanoparticles of realgar are superior to untreated realgar particles for their cytotoxic as well as inhibition of cell proliferation and improved effects of oxidative stress, which may provide a possibility for its treatment in tumor therapy.[50] Processed realgar was evaluated for their antiproliferative activities using different cancer cell lines K-562, HL-60, ARH-77, and U-266. All the processed realgar exhibited antiproliferative activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.39 to 4.82 μg/mL against different cancer cell lines K-562, HL-60, ARH-77, and U-266.[25] Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila was evaluated for sedative-hypnotic activity in albino rats using spontaneous motor activity and diazepam-induced sleeping time model. Through the reduction of spontaneous motor activity and potentiating the diazepam-induced sleeping time Shodhita Manahshila shows sedative-hypnotic activity in albino rats.[51]


  Conclusion Top


These outlooks discuss mineral realgar used in traditional medicines. The bioavailability of realgar is low; though, arsenolite is high. Pharmacologic facts show that the use of realgar in traditional medicines may be most wanted in some cases, but the therapeutic basis in the most case remains to be completely acceptable. Realgar is much less acutely cardiovascular toxic than arsenic trioxide. In current period, accumulative facts have suggested that realgar is a potent anticancer agent to treat malignant hematologic diseases; our information is still incomplete about who plays the most essential role. Is it the little amount of insoluble arsenic sulfide or soluble arsenic, or arsenic metabolites in the body? This plan can be achieved by increasing a sensitive and definite analytical technique for speciation of realgar. Nanoparticle size of realgar could potentially change its bioavailability, toxicity, and pharmacology profile positively or negatively, that demanding additional studies.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Kumar A, Nair AG, Reddy AV, Garg AN. Bhasmas: Unique ayurvedic metallic-herbal preparations, chemical characterization. Biol Trace Elem Res 2006;109:231-54.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Efferth T, Li PC, Konkimalla VS, Kaina B. From traditional Chinese medicine to rational cancer therapy. Trends Mol Med 2007;13:353-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Waxman S, Anderson KC. History of the development of arsenic derivatives in cancer therapy. Oncologist 2001;6 Suppl 2:3-10.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cohen SM, Arnold LL, Eldan M, Lewis AS, Beck BD. Methylated arsenicals: The implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006;36:99-133.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Seow WJ, Pan WC, Kile ML, Baccarelli AA, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, et al. Arsenic reduction in drinking water and improvement in skin lesions: A follow-up study in Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120:1733-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sun G. Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;198:268-71.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Abhyankar LN, Jones MR, Guallar E, Navas-Acien A. Arsenic exposure and hypertension: A systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120:494-500.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Navas-Acien A, Sharrett AR, Silbergeld EK, Schwartz BS, Nachman KE, Burke TA, et al. Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:1037-49.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Yoshida T, Yamauchi H, Fan Sun G. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: Dose-response relationships in review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;198:243-52.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Bhattacharjee P, Banerjee M, Giri AK. Role of genomic instability in arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. A review. Environ Int 2013;53:29-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Pan WC, Seow WJ, Kile ML, Hoffman EB, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, et al. Association of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure with risk of type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Am J Epidemiol 2013;178:1563-70.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tyler CR, Allan AM. The effects of arsenic exposure on neurological and cognitive dysfunction in human and rodent studies: A Review. Curr Environ Health Rep 2014;1:132-147.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Cascio C, Raab A, Jenkins RO, Feldmann J, Meharg AA, Haris PI. The impact of a rice based diet on urinary arsenic. J Environ Monit 2011;13:257-65.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kim KW, Chanpiwat P, Hanh HT, Phan K, Sthiannopkao S. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia. Front Med 2011;5:420-33.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Mathews V, Chendamarai E, George B, Viswabandya A, Srivastava A. Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with single-agent arsenic trioxide. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2011;3:e2011056.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Wu J, Shao Y, Liu J, Chen G, Ho PC. The medicinal use of realgar (As 4 S 4 ) and its recent development as an anticancer agent. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135:595-602.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Evens AM, Tallman MS, Gartenhaus RB. The potential of arsenic trioxide in the treatment of malignant disease: Past, present, and future. Leuk Res 2004;28:891-900.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Lu DP, Qiu JY, Jiang B, Wang Q, Liu KY, Liu YR, et al. Tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A pilot report. Blood 2002;99:3136-43.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
China Pharmacopeia committee. Beijing: Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Medicine Science and Technology Press; 2005. p. 185-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kodlady N, Doddamani MS, Patgiri BJ. Pharmaceutical - Analytic study of the Ayurvedic purification of Manahshila (Realgar). Asian J Trad Med 2012;7:143-50.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Zhang J, Zhang X, Ni Y, Yang X, Li H. Bioleaching of arsenic from medicinal Realgar by pure and mixed cultures. Process Biochem 2007;42:1265-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Liu J, Lu Y, Wu Q, Goyer RA, Waalkes MP. Mineral arsenicals in traditional medicines: Orpiment, realgar, and arsenolite. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008;326:363-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Baláž P, Sedlák J. Arsenic in cancer treatment: Challenges for application of realgar nanoparticles (a minireview). Toxins (Basel) 2010;2:1568-81.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Wang L, Zhou GB, Liu P, Song JH, Liang Y, Yan XJ, et al. Dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Realgar-Indigo naturalis as an effective treatment for promyelocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:4826-31.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Baláž P, Fabián M, Pastorek M, Cholujová D, Sedlák J. Mechanochemical preparation and anticancer effect of realgar As 4 S 4 nanoparticles. Mater Letters 2009;63:1542-4.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Jiang H, Ding JH, Zhang YH, Shi ST, Gao S, Gong HZ, et al. Study on water processing conditions of Realgar. Zhong Yao Cai 2009;32:26-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic (Update). Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some Drinking Water Disinfectants and Contaminants, Including Arsenic. Vol. 84. Lyon: IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum Press; 2004. p. 269-47.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Shastri K. Govindadas's Bhaishajya Ratnavali. 24/35-37, 31-33. 18 th ed. Varanasi: Chowkambha Sanskrit Samstana; 2005. p. 514.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Zhang W, Yu BY, Kou JP, Wang JR. Studies on the correlation between toxicity and activities of Realgar. Chin J Nat Med 2004;2:123-5.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Lu YF, Wu Q, Yan JW, Shi JZ, Liu J, Shi JS. Realgar, cinnabar and An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan are much less chronically nephrotoxic than common arsenicals and mercurials. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2011;236:233-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Liu J, Liang SX, Lu YF, Miao JW, Wu Q, Shi JS. Realgar and realgar-containing Liu-Shen-Wan are less acutely toxic than arsenite and arsenate. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:26-31.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Baláž P, Bujòáková Z, Kartachova O, Fabián M. Bernhardt stalder properties and bioaccessibility of arsenic sulphide nanosuspensions. Mater Letters 2013;104:84-6.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Shen JC, Liu KY, Jiang B, Lu XJ, Lu DP. Effect of the tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As 4 S 4 ) on the corrected QT interval in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Chin J Hematol 2004;6:41-3.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Qin XY, Jiang B, Li GX, Lu DP. Chronic hepatic damage in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide. Chin J Hematol 2006;4:259-63.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Zou MC, Ni HC. Analysis of adverse reactions to detoxicating tablets (pills) of cow-bezoar in 40 cases. World Clin Drugs 2007;1:16.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Kwan SY, Tsui SK, Man TO. Release of soluble arsenic from realgar in simulated gastric juice. Ana Letters 2001;34:1431-6.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Wu XH, Sun DH, Zhuang ZX, Wang XR, Gong HF, Hong JX, et al. Aanlysis and leaching characteristics of mercury and arsenic in Chinese medicinal material. Anal Chim Acta 2002;453:311-23.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Koch I, Sylvester S, Lai VW, Owen A, Reimer KJ, Cullen WR. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2007;222:357-64.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Wu JZ, Ho PC. Evaluation of the in vitro activity and in vivo bioavailability of realgar nanoparticles prepared by cryo-grinding. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006;29:35-44.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Wu JZ, Ho PC. Comparing the relative oxidative DNA damage caused by various arsenic species by quantifying urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine with isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharm Res 2009;26:1525-33.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Tang YS, Wang LS. Pharmacokinetic studies of arsenic-containing traditional medicines. Zhong Yao Cai 2005;12:1130-5.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Qin XY, Jiang B, Li GX, Lu DP. Chronic hepatic damage in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2006;27:259-63.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Wei L, Liao P, Wu H, Li X, Pei F, Li W, et al. Metabolic profiling studies on the toxicological effects of realgar in rats by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009;234:314-25.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Ye HQ, Gan L, Yang XL, Xu HB. Membrane-associated cytotoxicity induced by realgar in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103:366-71.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Deng Y, Xu H, Huang K, Yang X, Xie C, Wu J. Size effects of realgar particles on apoptosis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line: ECV-304. Pharmacol Res 2001;44:513-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Wu Q, Lu YF, Shi JZ, Liang SX, Shi JS, Liu J. Chemical form of metals in traditional medicines underlines potential toxicity in cell cultures. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:839-43.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Wu ML, Deng JF, Lin KP, Tsai WJ. Lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning due to topical use of traditional Chinese medicines. Am J Med 2013;126:451-4.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Li JE, Wu WL, Wang ZY, Sun GL. Apoptotic effect of As 2 S 2 on K562 cells and its mechanism. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2002;23:991-6.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Ye HQ, Gan L, Yang XL, Xu HB. Membrane toxicity accounts for apoptosis induced by realgar nanoparticles in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 2005;103:117-32.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Kodlady N, Doddamani MS, Vishwanath Y, Patgiri BJ. Sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila (Realgar) - An experimental evaluation. Anc Sci Life 2011;30:78-83.  Back to cited text no. 51
    



This article has been cited by
1 Bioleaching of realgar nanoparticles using the extremophilic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans DLC-5
Ruixiang Xu,Peng Song,Jianghui Wang,Zhengrong Wu,Lei Yan,Wenbin Zhao,Yuheng Liu,Wantong Ma,Maria Latta,Hongyu Li,Peng Chen
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Use of Realgar i...
Toxicity of Realgar
Low Bioaccessibi...
Pharmacology
Conclusion
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1111    
    Printed76    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded612    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]