|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 118-120
Varun Rajesh Sarodaya, Tanveer Abdul Majeed
Department of Surgical Oncology, Zen Multispeciality Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||14-Sep-2017|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Nov-2017|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Dec-2017|
Dr. Tanveer Abdul Majeed
Department of Surgical Oncology, Zen Multispeciality Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The sternalis muscle is an uncommon variant of the anterior thoracic chest wall musculature. During mastectomy of a patient, we observed a left-sided unilateral vertical band of texture sternalis muscle fiber overlying the lateral edge of the sternum. We are reporting about the same in this case. The origin of this muscle is a debatable topic. It can be misdiagnosed by the clinicians on a routine mammography. The presence of this muscle can cause alterations in electrocardiography during investigation.
Keywords: Mammography, mastectomy, rectus sternalis muscle
|How to cite this article:|
Sarodaya VR, Majeed TA. Rectus sternalis. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2017;2:118-20
The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomical variant of the anterior thoracic region musculature which is well documented. It is familiar to anatomists but quite unknown among clinicians and radiologists. The incidence of rectus sternalis is about 3%–6%. It has different nomenclatures, namely, musculus sternalis, presternalis, sternalis muscle, sternalis brottrum, or thoracis., Unilateral occurrence is the most common. Embryologically, this accessory muscle is derived from myotonic hypomeres, which form the muscles of the ventral and lateral body walls in the thorax and abdomen. It represents a remnant of panniculus carnosus present in quadruplets. The muscle usually arises from the upper sternum and the infraclavicular region and gets inserted into various points such as the pectoral fascia, lower ribs, costal cartilages, rectus abdominis muscle sheath, or the abdominal external oblique muscle aponeurosis., It is innervated by perforating branches of the intercostal nerves and its vascular supply comes from perforating branches of the anterior intercostal arteries. We here by present a case associated with “rectus sternalis” muscle.
| Case Report|| |
A 65-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with a lump in her right breast of 2-month duration. Her obstetric score was G3P2A1L2. She was a known diabetic for 10 years but well controlled on oral hypoglycemic agent. On examination, the right breast showed nipple retraction and minimal peau d' orange. Her ultrasonography (USG) breast revealed a mass lesion measuring 4 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm in the central quadrant of the right breast with subcentimeter axillary nodes. Chest X-ray and mammogram showed a 4.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 2.0 cm spiculated lesion in central quadrant with clustered microcalcification and architectural deformity [Figure 1]. On physical examination, a 4 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm mass was palpated in the central quadrant of the right breast which was freely mobile with no tethering or fixity to pectoralis major. Core needle biopsy was confirmatory of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Her USG abdomen, chest X-ray, and bone scan were normal. She was diagnosed as locally advanced breast carcinoma with T4aN1M0. She received three cycles of neoadjuvant CEF regimen (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by response evaluation. In view of good response, she was planned for the right radical mastectomy with axillary dissection and she underwent the same. Intraoperatively, we found a vertical band of muscle fiber overlying the lateral edge of the sternum and getting inserted into the deep fascia of the neck, and lower insertion was on the anterior part of rectus sheath, which represented “rectus sternalis” muscle [Figure 2].
|Figure 1: (a) Cranial-caudal view. (b) Mediolateral-oblique view. Bilateral mammogram right breast showing architectural distortion and stippled microcalcification (white arrow) and pectoralis major muscle (black arrow)|
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|Figure 2: A unilateral strip of rectus sternalis muscle. (PM: Pectoralis major, RS: Rectus sternalis)|
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| Discussion|| |
The rectus sternalis muscle is occasionally present in the pectoral region in human beings but regularly seen in lower animals. The incidence of this muscle varies with race, ethnicity, and sex, Asians 11.5%, Africans 8.4%, Indians 4.8%, and Europeans 4.4%. It is unilateral or bilateral. Patients diagnosed with rectus sternalis muscle are usually asymptomatic.
The first reported literature pertaining to sternalis muscle was done by Cabrollius (1604), but its formal description was done only in 1776 by Dupuy. There are various postulations about its origin: (a) pectoralis major; (b) rectus abdominis; (c) sternocleidomastoideus; (d) panniculus carnosus, which is more developed in lower animals. Panniculus carnosus is a subcutaneous muscle such as platysma which is very prominent in dogs and is responsible for wrinkling the trunk skin. It is believed that the defective precursor migration of the prepectoral mass which gives rise to the pectoralis major and minor muscles may also contribute to the sternalis muscle development while mechanical disturbances may lead to atypical clockwise rotation of the muscle fibers., It gets inserted into rectus sheath, costal cartilage, or lower ribs and is situated between anterior thoracic superficial fascia and pectoral fascia.
Intercostal nerves and the anterior thoracic cutaneous nerves provide the sternalis muscle's innervation. The arterial supply of this muscle is from perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery. The contraction of this muscle can elevate the lower part of the chest because of its superficial location. Thus, it plays only an accessory role in lower chest wall elevation., However, there are no reports that suggest it acts as an accessory muscle of respiration.
Magnetic resonance imaging accurately defines the rectus sternalis as a flat structure that runs parallel to the overlying pectoralis major muscle.
Usually, patients with rectus sternalis are asymptomatic however:
- The presence of pectoralis major muscle can cause alterations in electrocardiography during investigation ,
- During routine mammography, sternalis muscles can be mistaken for a tumor in the craniocaudal view during initial investigation or as a recurrence during follow-up in the postoperative period.,
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]