• Users Online: 50
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 60-65

Stability study of Kumari (Aloe vera [L.] burm.) Swarasa (juice) with respect to baseline microbial diagnostic modalities


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Head, Microbiology Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching & Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Departments of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission16-Sep-2019
Date of Decision18-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance01-Nov-2019
Date of Web Publication09-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pravin Jawanjal
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_50_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: Swarasa, one of the most popular Kalpana among five basic Kalpana, is widely used therapeutically as well as pharmaceutically. A clear description of Swarasa is available in all Samhitas regarding its preparation, and utility.
AIMS: This study aims to carry out the stability of Kumari Swarasa with respect to its microbial profile.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample of Kumari Swarasa was prepared and studied to check microbial contamination at regular intervals.
RESULTS: Five samples were subjected to the microbiological study from the date of the preparation to the date of last microbiological study. No, any contaminations were found in the microbiological study in the range of minimum of one day and a maximum of three days after preparation of sample.
DISCUSSION: Hence, the present study was carried out to observe the stability study of Kumari Swarasa with respect to microbial contamination of samples prepared and preserved in different climatic and temperature conditions. Thus, a baseline microbial profile was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, it was found that shelf life of Aloe vera juice was varied as per humidity and temperature.
CONCLUSION: The microbiological study of Kumari Swarasa shows its stability in the range of a minimum of one day and maximum of three days after the preparation of the sample.

Keywords: Aloe Vera, Kumari, Swarasa, Stability


How to cite this article:
Jawanjal P, Cholera M S, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J. Stability study of Kumari (Aloe vera [L.] burm.) Swarasa (juice) with respect to baseline microbial diagnostic modalities. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2019;4:60-5

How to cite this URL:
Jawanjal P, Cholera M S, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B J. Stability study of Kumari (Aloe vera [L.] burm.) Swarasa (juice) with respect to baseline microbial diagnostic modalities. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 May 27];4:60-5. Available from: http://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2019/4/2/60/275436



Swarasa is a liquid form of medicament predominately used for internal administration as well as to prepare different secondary Kalpana (Formulation). It is obtained from freshly collected plants. The useful plant parts such as leaf, stem, fruit, or whole plant are cut to pieces and ground to prepare a bolus. The finely ground bolus is then collected and is mechanically squeezed to extract as much juice as possible. The juice so obtained termed as “Swarasa” - is collected.[1]Swarasa is an extracted juice of green and fresh drugs collected by pressing it through a machine.[2]Swarasa should be used in the fresh form. In Yogaratnakar, saviryata avadhi (period of retaining potency) is mentioned as 1 Yama as 3 h. Kumari belongs to Liliaceae family. It is commonly known as Aloe vera, Gwarpatha, and Ghritkumari. It contains saccharides, anthraquinones, vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Its constituents are aglycone barbaloin, aloe-emodin AIII, and prototinosaponins AIII.[3] Its active constituents are barbaloin, aglycone, aloe-emodin, pseudoprototinosaponin A III, and prototinosaponins AII. Aloe vera showed hypoglycemic activity by stimulation of synthesis or release of insulin from beta-cells of the pancreas. Dried sap of aloe vera showed significant hypoglycemic effect clinically as well as experimentally.[4] A. vera gel (200 mg/kg) possesses significant antidiabetic and cardioprotective activity and maintains superoxide dismutase and catalase activity up to normal and increases glutathione four times in diabetic rats.[3],[5] The amendment of Rule No. 161-B of Drugs and Cosmetic Act 1940, specify the maximum shelf life or date of expiry of different dosage form of ayurvedic drugs. The shelf life of fresh prepared Swarasa is not mentioned in the Gazette of India.[6]

The drug was prepared in RS and BK dept. I. P. G. T and R. A., Jamnagar of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. No preservative was added to the test drug.

Aim

This study aims to study the stability of the finished product and to check microbial contamination in the finished product at different time intervals - at different climatic conditions, temperature, and humidity setups.


  Materials and Methods Top


Drug preparation

Kumari Swarasa was prepared by according to “Sharangadhara Samhita.”[7] And studied to check microbial contamination at regular intervals. The microbiological study has been carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar.

Drug material

The drug was prepared in RS and BK Department IPGT and RA, Jamnagar of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.

Storage

The finished product was stored in airtight food-grade, plastic containers, stored in the open light area in the department at room temperature. A clean and dry stainless-steel spoon was used to take medicine.

Microbial profile

Microbial contamination was assessed by two methods to check any mycological findings and bacteriological findings.

  1. Smear examination


    1. Wet mount/10% KOH preparation
    2. Gram's stain.


  2. Culture study


    1. Fungal culture
    2. Aerobic culture.


The details of the procedures followed are given below.

Smear examination

Wet mount/10% KOH preparation

  • Aim: To rule out any mycological findings.
  • Specimen: Kumari Swarasa.




Gram's stain test

Gram staining is a differential staining technique that differentiates bacteria into two groups, Gram positive and Gram negative. The procedure is based on the ability of microorganisms to retain color of the stains used during the Gram stain procedure. Gram-negative bacteria are decolorized by any organic solvent (acetone or Gram's decolorizer) while Gram-positive bacteria are not decolorized as primary dye retained by the cell and bacteria will remain as purple. After decolorization step, a counterstain effect was found on Gram-negative bacteria and bacteria will remain pink. The Gram stain procedure enables bacteria to retain color of the stains, based on the differences in the chemical and physical properties of the cell wall. [Figure 1] [Figure 2] [Figure 3][8]
Figure 1: Smear staining procedure

Click here to view
Figure 2: Smear staining procedure

Click here to view
Figure 3: Sabouraud dextrose agar base bottle

Click here to view


  • Aim: To rule out any bacteriological findings
  • Specimen: Kumari Swarasa.




Fungal culture method

Respected materials collected with a sterile cotton swab for inoculation purpose on selected fungal culture media (i.e., an artificial preparation).

  • Name of media: Sabouraud dextrose agar base, modified (dextrose agar base, emmons)
  • Company: HIMEDIA Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.
  • Required time duration: 5–7 days
  • Required temperature: 37°C
  • Use of media: For selective cultivation of pathogenic fungi.




Aerobic culture method

Respected materials collected with a sterile cotton swab for inoculation purpose on selected aerobic culture media (i.e., an artificial preparation).

  • Name of media: Mac Conkey Agar and Columbia blood agar
  • Company: HIMEDIA Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.
  • Required time duration: 24–48 h
  • Required temperature: 37°C
  • Use of media: for selective cultivation of pathogenic bacteria.





  Observations and Results Top


Every time, sample (in which drug preserved) was subjected to the microbiological study from the date of the preparation to the date of the last microbiological study.

Results are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Observations of Kumari Swarasa preserved at room temperature

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The present study was carried out to observe Kumari Swarasa with respect to microbial contamination of samples prepared and preserved in different climatic and temperature conditions. Thus, a baseline microbial profile was studied at regular intervals. At the end of study, it was found that sample showed the presence of microbes in batch one on 3rd day from date of preparation, in batch two on 2nd day from the date preparation, in batch 3 on 1st day, in batch five on 3rd day, and in batch six on 3rd day from date of preparation were found. The main factors affecting the Shelf life are the derivation of the drug, dosage forms, environmental factors (humidity, temperature, and light), microbial contamination, storage conditions, and packaging system.[9] Stability is usually expressed in terms of shelf life, which is the time period from when the product is produced until the time it is intended to be consumed or used. Microorganism needs water, humidity, and temperature at suitable environmental conditions to develop in any media, surface, or article. Shelf life according to Yogaratnakara is 3 h (one Prahar).[9] In batch three, it was found that contamination on 1st day from the date of preparation which was same as acharya Yogaratnakara opinion, but in batch four and five contamination was found on 3rd day. It revealed that shelf life of A. vera juice was varied as per humidity and temperature [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 2: Observations of Kumari swarasa preserved at room temperature

Click here to view



  Conclusion Top


The microbiological study of Kumari Swarasa shows its stability in the range of a minimum of one day and maximum of three days after the preparation of the sample.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Savrikar SS, Ravishankar B. Bhaishajya Kalpanaa – The ayurvedic pharmaceutics – An overview. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2010;7:174-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Trikamji AY, editor. Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, Sutra Sthana. Reprint edition. Ch. 4., Ver. 7. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbhati Prakashana; 2011. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Priya P, Nisha T, Sumit S. Antidiabetic herbs and their marketed formulations. Int J Green Herbal Chem 2016;5:215-29.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Noor A, Gunasekaran S, Manickam AS, Vijayalakshmi MA. Antidiabetic activity of aloe vera and histology of organs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Curr Sci 2008;94:1070-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ajabnoor MA. Effect of aloes on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;28:215-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
The Gazette of India. Extraordinary. Part-II., Sec. 3. New Delhi: The Gazette of India; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sharangadhara. Sharangadhara Samhita. Translater Murthy Srikanta K.R. Second section. Chapter 1 verses 2. Varanasi. Chaukhamba Orientalia. Reprint edition. 2016. p. 51.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Brown AE. Benson: Microbiological Applications, 8th ed. USA. The McGraw−Hill Companies 2001. p. 64.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Vijay G, Archana J, Shankar MB, Sharma Rajeev KR. Shelf life of ayurvedic dosage forms in regulatory perspectives. Int J Adv Ayurveda Yoga Unani Siddha Homeopathy 2017;6:360-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Materials and Me...
Observations and...
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed499    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded109    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]