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 Table of Contents  
MEDICAL EDUCATION TEACHING NOTE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 94-96

Selection of an appropriate data collection tool to conduct a sensitization session on competency-based medical education


1 Vice-Principal Curriculum, Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet Taluk, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth-Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet Taluk, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission30-Mar-2019
Date of Decision22-Jun-2019
Date of Acceptance02-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication09-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV)-Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet Taluk, Kancheepuram - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_15_19

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  Abstract 


Research work essentially involves the collection of data or facts unknown or untouched till date. To collect these data, a wide range of tools or instruments can be used based on the study objectives or the settings in which they have to be used. For conducting a sensitization session for faculty and postgraduate students about competency-based medical education, entrustable professional activities, use of appropriate assessment tools for the certification of EPAs to produce a competent postgraduate, and roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders, a number of tools can be employed, such as questionnaire, checklist, rating scale, attitude scale, and observation. To conclude, planned utilization of appropriate data collection tool can play a crucial part in the successful outcome of a project or a session. Thus, it is very much important that the researcher should be aware of the merits and demerits of each tool and the settings under which they should be employed.

Keywords: Competency-based medical education, entrustable professional activities, questionnaire


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Selection of an appropriate data collection tool to conduct a sensitization session on competency-based medical education. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2019;4:94-6

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Selection of an appropriate data collection tool to conduct a sensitization session on competency-based medical education. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 5];4:94-6. Available from: http://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2019/4/2/94/275425



Research work essentially involves the collection of data or facts unknown or untouched till date.[1] This collection can be obtained from various sources, either directly or indirectly; however, to collect comprehensive data (adequate, reliable, and valid), the process of collecting data should be done through a systematic procedure.[1] To collect these data, a wide range of tools or instruments can be used based on the study objectives or the settings in which they have to be used.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] Moreover, the primary task is to select a suitable tool/s for ensuring a successful research, keeping their merits or demerits in mind.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]


  Tools for Data Collection Top


For conducting a sensitization session for faculty and postgraduate students about competency-based medical education (CBME), entrustable professional activities (EPAs), use of appropriate assessment tools for the certification of EPAs to produce a competent postgraduate, and roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders, a number of tools can be employed as will be discussed in the following sections.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

Questionnaire

It is a form developed and circulated to obtain the answers to specific questions and is filled by the respondents. A semi-structured type of questionnaire will be designed to know the level of knowledge about CBME and EPA from the participants through a pretest. Subsequently, the same questionnaire will be administered after the sensitization session in the form of a posttest, and thus, it will reflect the extent of learning from each of the participants (Kirkpatrick Level 2 evaluation).[2]

However, while designing the questionnaire, standard rules (viz., short, comprehensive, look for only those data which cannot be obtained by other means, avoid ambiguous words, should follow a specific order) should be adhered. Further, owing to the economical nature and the ability to obtain a significant amount of research data, which can be readily analyzed, this tool can be employed.[2]

Checklist

This tool is used to compensate for the limitations of memory and attention, and it aids in ensuring the development and wholeness of a task. Its main purpose is to attract attention toward the various subactivities, which have to be fulfilled, to not only monitor the progress but even monitor the accomplishment of the overall task. However, while preparing the checklist, standard terms should be used, and it should be continuous and holistic. In addition, a pilot study is recommended for its standardization before it is actually used.[3]

To conduct the sensitization session effectively, a set of activities (viz., informing the stakeholders, venue arrangement, audiovisual aids, and stationary) have to be done before the start of the session. Thus, designing a checklist before organizing the session is the best way to go about the task as it enables us to ensure the completion of each of desired activities. In addition, a checklist can be designed to prepare a plan for ensuring the periodic assessment of each of the postgraduate students for different EPAs. Once again, the presence of a checklist will aid in monitoring the various assessments done and the pending ones.[3]

Rating scale

This is a form which can be used either for expressions or for giving a judgment with regard to a specific scenario or an object or a person. These scales help in quantification of the judgments and are extensively used for doing appraisals. It is important to note that three factors (viz., the subjects or the phenomena to be rated, the continuum along which rating will be done, and the assessors who will rate it) should be carefully considered while constructing a rating scale. The rating scale can be used to assess the immediate reactions of the participants to the sensitization session regarding content, teacher performance, and effectiveness of the session (Kirkpatrick Level 1 evaluation). This assessment will further aid in ensuring appropriate modifications in the content of the sensitization session for future sessions.[4]

Attitude scale

These scales are designed to assess the attitude of an individual toward any topic, organization, or a group of people. Likert's scale is one of the examples of an attitude scale, and it can be used within the rating scale to record their responses with regard to various items (viz., the course content was well organized to make the most effective use of time allotted; content was appropriate to my training needs and skill level) of the sensitization session (Kirkpatrick Level 1 evaluation). This scale has the advantage that the recorded responses can be quantified, and there is a definitive way to standardize the scale.[5]

Observation

It is a scientific approach toward the collection of data and records the information in a natural setting directly. In this technique, the behavior of study participants is watched and recorded without any direct contact. It is a systematic, specific, objective, and quantitative form of assessment, which enables the collection of substantial amount of data in a relatively short period. This tool will be employed during the assessment of postgraduate student by an appropriate assessment tool by the faculty in-charge (in rotation). The assessor will observe each of the postgraduate students for a specific EPA and then will grade them, as well as give feedback to the students.[6]


  Conclusion Top


Planned utilization of appropriate data collection tool can play a crucial role in the successful outcome of a project or a session. Thus, it is very much important that the researcher should be aware of the merits and demerits of each tool and the settings under which they should be employed.



Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Ensuring improvement in the health data to revamp the health systems: World Health Organization. Int J Adv Med Health Res 2016;3:34-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dreiling K, Montano D, Poinstingl H, Müller T, Schiekirka-Schwake S, Anders S, et al. Evaluation in undergraduate medical education: Conceptualizing and validating a novel questionnaire for assessing the quality of bedside teaching. Med Teach 2017;39:820-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Whalen AM, Boyer DL, Nishisaki A. Checklist-based assessment of procedural skills: A Missing Piece in the link between medical education interventions and patient outcomes. J Pediatr 2017;188:11-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Yuan CM, Nee R, Abbott KC, Oliver JD 3rd. Combating grade inflation in nephrology clinical rotation evaluations using faculty education and a 5-point centered rating scale. J Grad Med Educ 2016;8:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gunderman RB, Chan S. The 13-point likert scale: A breakthrough in educational assessment. Acad Radiol 2013;20:1466-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fromme HB, Karani R, Downing SM. Direct observation in medical education: A review of the literature and evidence for validity. Mt Sinai J Med 2009;76:365-71.  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

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