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  Most popular articles (Since March 07, 2016)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles kill virulent multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: A mechanistic study
Balaram Das, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Debasis Mandal, Jaydeep Adhikary, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Satyajit Tripathy, Aditi Dey, Subhankar Manna, Sankar Kumar Dey, Debasis Das, Somenath Roy
July-December 2016, 1(2):89-101
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.196087  
Background: Due to abuse and improper prescribing policy of antibiotics, the antibiotics resistance were remarkably increased in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, so there are urgently need to develop a new kind of antimicrobial to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have showed its interesting impact against bacterial infection drawn researchers to green nanotechnology. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of AgNPs against multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from urine sample of UTI patients. Methods: 126 UTI patent's urine samples were included in the study. P. aeruginosa strains were isolated, identify, antimicrobial susceptibility, drug resistance mechanisms were done as per routine laboratory protocol. The antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of the killing of Ag NPs were studied. Results: From this study, it was revealed that 25 (19.84%) isolates were multi drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Green synthesized Ag NPs successfully destroyed the multi drug resistant strains via ROS generation and membrane damage. The prevalence of multidrug resistance is increased worldwide and there are urgently need another option to control the multidrug resistant strains. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that Ag NPs might be used to treat the multi drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  12,623 306 1
MEDICAL EDUCATION TEACHING NOTE
The 14th Inter-medical School Physiology Quiz: Observations of common errors in the written test among students of 81 medical schools from 24 countries
Hwee-Ming Cheng, See-Ziau Hoe
July-December 2016, 1(2):139-142
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.196107  
The 14th Inter-medical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) competition had 81 medical schools from 24 countries. Analyses of the written responses at the 14th IMSPQ from a total of 334 students provide a useful teaching and learning insights. These observations, highlighted here, were gleaned from (i) the questions with most correct answers, (ii) the most unanswered questions, and (iii) the most wrongly answered questions. The IMSPQ is a unique annual physiology event that provides a global sampling of students' appreciation and understanding of core concepts in physiology.
  3,482 423 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hepatoprotective evaluation of Arogyavardhini Rasa against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Yuga Raj Sapkota, Prashant Bedarkar, Mukesh B Nariya, Pradeep K Prajapati
January-June 2017, 2(1):44-49
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.207421  
Introduction: Liver is termed as Yakrut in ayurvedic classical literature, is one of the major organs for maintaining homeostasis, and is involved more or less with all the biochemical pathways in the body. Arogyavardhini Rasa (AVR) is one of the widely practicing ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulations in liver disorders. It has been used for the management of diverse types of Jvara (fever), Kushtha (skin disorders), Medoroga (altered lipid profiles associated with obesity), and other Yakrit vikara (liver disorders). In this study, AVR was prepared as per the 13th-century classical text Rasaratna Samuchaya. On the other hand, heavy metals causing toxicity, especially mercury present in this formulation, are an issue of concern. Aim of the Study: Hepatoprotective effects of formulation were evaluated by paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver damage in rats to substantiate the role of metal mineral in the classical AVR formulation. Materials and Methods: Effects of formulation were assessed on serum and liver tissue biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. Results: PCM produced significantly impaired the liver and kidney functions as assessed through an increase in liver and kidney marker enzymes. Arogyavardhini-treated group significantly (P = 0.05) prevented this hepatotoxicity and strongly supported by histopathological examinations that revealed AVR shows the protection of liver tissue from PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The observation of the present study has stalwartly supported the hepatoprotective action of AVR against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
  3,267 171 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A review of literature on delays in seeking care for tuberculosis in different Indian states
Janmejaya Samal
January-June 2017, 2(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_49_16  
The passive case-finding approach of Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme in India strongly affects the health-seeking behavior of TB patients, the timing of help seeking as well as the subsequent delays associated with the same. Studies carried out in different parts of India reveal a host of several factors for delay in seeking help and the reasons for not seeking help at all. Important reasons for delayed health-seeking behavior include financial constraint, symptoms are not severe (as perceived by the patients), work pressure, lack of awareness, first consulted nonpublic sector, inaccessibility to health facility, home remedy, social stigma, self-medication, transport problem, and dissatisfaction with health facility. Similarly, the median patient delay ranged from 7 to 56 days as reported by various studies. Health-seeking behavior and related delays are of utmost importance in TB care from two important perspectives; first, TB requires timely treatment, and second, it requires protracted treatment. Required level of knowledge and a positive health behavior helps the patients in taking timely help from an appropriate health facility. Moreover, timely help-seeking prevents further spread of the disease and helps in establishing a TB-free society.
  2,824 215 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Competency-based medical education: Need of the hour: Let's do our bit…!!
Anita Herur, Sanjeev Kolagi
January-June 2016, 1(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183292  
  2,127 373 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Extended longevity at high altitude: Benefits of exposure to chronic hypoxia
Gustavo R Zubieta-Calleja, Natalia A Zubieta-DeUrioste
July-December 2017, 2(2):80-90
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_7_17  
BACKGROUND: Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia can give rise to acute mountain sickness, and rarely, high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. However, with gradual adaptation to “chronic hypoxia”, following the Adaptation to High Altitude Formula (Adaptation = time / altitudeΔ), the organism does remarkably well. High altitude residents are perfectly adapted to their environment. The cities of La Paz (3100–4100 m) and El Alto (4100 m) stand as living proof of this with 2.7 million inhabitants living perfectly normal lives, undisturbed by hypoxia and most even unaware of its existence. All the cells of the organism adapt to a lower arterial oxygen arterial partial pressure (PaO2) and likewise to a lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), an essential component that linked to an increased compensatory hemoglobin explain the paradox of increased “tolerance to hypoxia” at high altitude. METHODS: We reviewed the > 70 years old population historic records of the official Bolivian registration service SEGIP. Two groups were analyzed: those greater than 90 years of age, and those greater than 100 years of age according to the different altitude departments in Bolivia. RESULTS: As the altitude increases, the longevity increases. Santa Cruz at 416m and La Paz at 3800m (average), both with around 2.7 million inhabitants each, have 6 versus 48 centenarians respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Life under chronic hypoxia is not only tolerable, but also is, in fact, favorable to improve or treat many pathological conditions such as asthma, coronary artery disease, obesity and even giving rise to improved longevity. Sea level residents (when compared to high altitude residents) suffer a disability: poor tolerance to hypoxia.
  2,142 269 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Is WHO guideline value of arsenic in drinking water 10 ppb in the developing countries safe to drink?
Dipankar Chakraborti
January-June 2016, 1(1):57-57
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183289  
  2,114 186 4
EDITORIAL
“State-sponsored” doping: A transition from the former Soviet Union to present day Russia
Michael I Kalinski
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_54_16  
  1,891 335 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of efficacy of Kabat rehabilitation and facial exercises along with nerve stimulation in patients with Bell's palsy
Kanwal Khanzada, Muhammad Junaid Ijaz Gondal, Muhammad Mustafa Qamar, Ayesha Basharat, Waqas Ahmad, Sajid Ali
January-June 2018, 3(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_35_17  
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the role of Kabat rehabilitation and facial exercise techniques with nerve stimulation common in both for Bell's palsy treatment and its effectiveness in improving physical and social function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized control trial conducted at the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Two equal Groups (A and B) consist of 26 patients each. Patients were employed Kabat rehabilitation technique in GroupA and with facial exercise in Group-B. Patients in both treatment groups were followed until 3 weeks and improvement in Sunnybrook facial grading scale (SFGS) and facial disability index (FDI) scale were recorded at the end of treatment. RESULTS: In this study, 52 patients were enrolled into the study. At the end of 3 weeks, more improvement was seen in SFGS in Group-A (81.58 + 11.321) versus Group-B (63.77 + 21.645). Similarly, the improvement in physical and social function on FDI in Group-A was more than Group-B (>0.05). CONCLUSION: Kabat technique is more effective as compared to facial exercise technique in improving physical and social function.
  1,861 338 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A pilot study examining the effects of faculty incivility on nursing program satisfaction
Dana Todd, Dina Byers, Katy Garth
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183268  
Uncivil behavior in the classroom threatens the teaching-learning process. Research to date has focused on nursing student incivility in academia with little research examining the faculty role associated with incivility. Due to the lack of research examining faculty incivility toward nursing students, additional research in this area is indicated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of faculty incivility on nursing students' satisfaction with their Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN) nursing program in a rural Southeastern state. Quantitative data was collected via surveys. Research questions included: (1) What percentage of senior nursing students report experiencing faculty incivility? (2) What is the relationship between faculty incivility and nursing students' ratings of program satisfaction? (3) In what educational settings does perceived incivility toward nursing students occur? (4) How do nursing students respond to perceived faculty incivility? The results of this survey revealed that 35.3% of students had at least one nursing instructor that put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience. Furthermore, 20.7% reported that two or more faculty put them down or were condescending toward them. Collectively, the pilot study revealed that over half of the participants reported faculty behaving in a way that was perceived as uncivil. Incivility in the nursing profession has been an on-going problem. The high number (over half) of participating students reporting that they perceived that at least one nursing instructor had put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience raises additional concerns for the level of civility in nursing programs and the role modeling that is presented to students. It is imperative that nursing faculty and students interact professionally and establish effective communication patterns.
  1,893 261 1
Biologicals in the treatment of psoriasis: The Indian perspective
Ajit B Janagond, Aparna Palit
January-June 2017, 2(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_11_17  
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder characterized by itchy erythematous papules and plaques topped with silvery white scales. It has a chronic relapsing course and is associated with significant morbidity and reduction in the quality of life. Therapy of psoriasis is challenging. Topical therapy forms the first line of treatment for stable plaque psoriasis affecting a limited body surface area and in extensive disease systemic agents are indicated. All these drugs have inherent side effects, and none bring prolonged remission of the disease. The other therapeutic modality for psoriasis is phototherapy, but it is delivered through a specialized machine which can be available only at referral centers. Biologics have revolutionized the management of psoriasis as they can bring a remission of disease up to several years. Although limited availability and high cost prohibit their regular usage, Indian dermatologists are rapidly adopting biologics in the treatment of psoriasis.
  1,865 242 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Punarnavashtak Kwath, an ayurvedic formulation
Vineet Sharma
January-June 2017, 2(1):38-43
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_45_16  
Context: Punarnavashtak Kwath (PNK) is a polyherbal formulation assumed to have the potential for curing all types of inflammation, hepatic disorders, and asthma. Aims: This study was conducted to establish the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of PNK (EEPNK) in albino rats and mice. Subjects and Methods: The parts of the plant were air -dried in shade and pulverized coarsely and sieved by 20# sieve. Powdered material of plant was defatted with pet ether for 1 day followed by Soxhlet extraction with ethanol (95% v/v) for 7 days. The anti-inflammatory activity of the EEPNK was evaluated by egg albumin-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests to establish its effect on acute and chronic stage of inflammation models in albino rats. Whereas analgesic effects of EEPNK were performed in mice of either sex by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate methods. Statistics was expressed as a mean ± standard error of mean and statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA with Tukey's test. Results: The percent inhibition in rat paw volume was dose dependent (79.14%, 68.51%, and 61.70% at doses of 400, 200, and 100 mg/kg, p.o., respectively) at 240 min readings. Cotton pellet granuloma in rats (chronic study) model EEPNK (400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) extensively decreased the granuloma weight as compared to the negative control animals. Pretreatment with EEPNK was (400, 200, and 100 mg/kg p.o.) extensively (P < 0.001) inhibited of writhings in mice, and also significantly (P < 0.001) increased pain latency in hot plate test. Conclusions: Distinguish with the standard drug (indomethacin), the elevated dose of EEPNK (400 mg/kg b.w.) has a comparable effect on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
  1,920 140 -
Pain management: An ignored medical issue
Ranabir Pal, Swapan Kumar Paul, Pandurang Vithal Thatkar, Shrayan Pal
January-June 2016, 1(1):28-32
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183282  
Background: Pain is reality from womb to tomb as the specific personalized articulated feeling of human beings whether they need respite or not. Objective: To find an optimum primary care approach to pain management. Methods: The investigators pursued a sincere effort to unearth an answer to pain management through their internalized clinical experience of managing the commonest presentation of symptoms at their clinics by hundreds of ailing citizens. Results: Since ancient times, thousands of interventions have been practiced for relief of pain including an array of self-medications and traditional practices. In the era of "Evidence Based Medicine" in this new millennium, all forms of pain managements need scientific evaluation by the application of highest research integrity before they can be adapted as a standard treatment protocol. As the severity of the pain is a grossly subjective, the treatment/drug of choice and/or the methods/dosage should depend on the judgments of objective severity by the health care providers, depending on the objective clinical/ radiological/ pathological/ biochemical criteria and if possible by formulating scoring systems. Rather than managing the pain based on the expressed perception of the severity of pain by the patient as mild, moderate or severe, we have to be innovative in the new paradigm of this nascent pain management scenario. Conclusions: We have to help the budding doctors to grow up not only as a sensible doctor, but also as a great human being, who will give due attention to pain through a holistic tailor-made approach.
  1,822 149 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Strategies for enhancing quality of life in thalassemic children
K Kavitha, A Padmaja
July-December 2017, 2(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_17_17  
Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the reduction or absence in the synthesis of the globin chains of hemoglobin. Worldwide, approximately 15 million people are estimated to suffer from this disease and 300 million carriers born every year. The carrier rate for β-thalassemia varies from 1% to 17% in India. The prevalence is very high among certain communities and is emerging as a major public health problem in India but received little attention. Due to the chronic nature of the disease, thalassemic children need long-term treatments such as blood transfusions and chelation therapy. Hence, these children need repeated hospitalization, forgo schooling, and cannot perform day-to-day activities including play. This may affect the quality of life (QoL) in these children. The nursing strategies for enhancing QoL include providing a network of care, supportive strategies, positive coping mechanism, ongoing assessment, prevention of complications, and empowering the children with thalassemia and their parents. The future hopes are unrelated cord blood stem cells, gene therapy. To conclude, a comprehensive approach toward the care of children with thalassemia can increase the level of QoL among these children. The review search was done through Google engine, PubMed as well as scholarly articles from printed journals, and books.
  1,154 788 1
Demand of pregnancy in advanced age: A challenge to fertility specialists
Siddhartha Chatterjee
January-June 2016, 1(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183267  
The couples of advanced age nowadays are requesting for the promotion of fertility for the first time quite more than what it was before. This is because of career making of men and women, increased divorce, and re-marriage. Physicians dealing with infertility problems are facing a lot of challenges in this regard. The diminished fecundity in advanced age is a routine happening. That is because of diminished ovarian reserve and there may be more aneuploidy in the oocytes or problem with the male gametes, so far as the genetic constitution, fertilizability, and motility are concerned. Research is going on all over the world in this regard, and the present way out is egg donation for elderly women with poor ovarian reserve. Though in a certain percentage of cases, in elderly women, natural conception is possible with or without ovulation induction, in males, usually fertility remain for long, even up to the advanced age, and reproductive assistance in the form of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is required with very poor sperm quality.
  1,712 196 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of herbo-mineral formulation (Shilajatu Rasayana) in letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome
Vanitha Hosur Kumari, Revanasiddappa S Sarashetti, Kashinath S Hadimur, Kasturi A Patil
July-December 2016, 1(2):108-112
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.196093  
The major cause of female infertility in recent years is polycystic ovarian syndrome commonly called as PCOS, compared to yonivyapath (disorders of female reproductive system) described in Ayurveda. Shilajatu Rasayana herbo-mineral preparation mentioned in "Rasendra Chudamani" indicated in yonyaamaya (disorders of female reproductive system), gulma (tumors), meha (hyperinsulinemia), pandu (anemia), etc. is expected to contribute positive and better result in letrozole-induced PCOS, considering the previous analytical and experimental studies. Letrozole, Shilajatu Rasayana, clomiphene citrate, ghee, and female albino rats formed the materials for the study. Totally thirty female rats were initially induced to develop PCOS by injecting letrozole. The induction of PCOS in rats was checked through vaginal smear analysis and further confirmed by hormonal assay. PCOS-induced rats were treated with clomiphene citrate (standard), Shilajatu Rasayana (test drug), and ghee (control). Ovarian and uterine weight, hormonal assay, and histomorphometric changes were observed and recorded. Shilajatu Rasayana has shown a significant result in letrozole-induced PCOS by regulating hormones, reduction of cystic follicles, maturation of ovarian follicles, and decreasing the increased ovarian and uterine weight.
  1,721 163 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study: Looking beyond the obvious
Rishad Ahmed, Pallavi Kawatra
July-December 2017, 2(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_19_17  
With the addition of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors to the current arsenal of oral antidiabetics (OAD), a lot has changed. From questioning their glucouretic mechanism to understanding their pleiotropic effects, it has been an eventful journey. In 2008, after the rosiglitazone fiasco, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandate was passed to ensure the safety of the OAD. Up to the gliptins, there was an era of cardiovascular (CV) safety which progressed to CV protection with the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. It came with a lot of questions regarding the probable mechanism and the doubts of whether it will translate into a class effect or not. After the Canagliflozin CV Assessment Study results, a lot of things have come into light regarding the overall benefits with these molecules. This review highlights the similarities and dissimilarities in the two trial results.
  1,611 245 -
Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain
Zerf Mohammed, Bengoua Ali, Mokkedes Moulay Idris, Hakim Hamzaoui, Lakhdar Messaliti
July-December 2016, 1(2):81-88
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.196084  
Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs) where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI) into two groups (normal and overweight) and based on their body shape's type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape) as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.
  1,707 114 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relative importance of inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukins-6) in neonatal sepsis
Satyaki Das, Jaydeb Ray
January-June 2016, 1(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183270  
Objective: Early diagnosis and treatment decreases the mortality and morbidity of neonatal sepsis(NS). The aim of this study was to find out the level of different inflammatory markers in neonatal sepsis. Methods: Forty two term neonates with non-sepsis (n = 17), clinical (n = 10) and proven (n = 15) sepsis were evaluated. Blood cultures were obtained and ESR, CRP, procalcitonin, IL-6 levels were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to look for association between NS and different inflammatory markers and to compare the strength of association among the markers. Findings: Among the 42 neonates, CRP level was found to be elevated in 27 neonates, ESR in 22 neonates, both procalcitonoin and IL-6 in 24 neonates respectively. Both sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin and IL-6 were high compare to CRP. Conclusions: Blood culture significantly increases the proven sepsis status among neonates with suspected sepsis. ESR is a poor predictor of NS. Newer inflammatory markers namely procalcitonin and IL-6 were found to have greater value than CRP, but not ESR.
  1,525 213 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review
Vineet Sharma, Narendra Kumar Singh, Dev Nath Singh Gautam
July-December 2016, 1(2):69-72
DOI:10.4103/2468-838X.196079  
Realgar has been not only well-known poisons but also used as healing agent. Realgar has long been used in traditional medicines for different diseases; so far arsenic can be extremely toxic and carcinogenic. In Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines arsenic usually comes from conscious addition for healing purposes, mostly in the form of mineral arsenicals with orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenic trioxide (As2O3). Pharmacological studies revealed that realgar is effective against in different cancer cell line. However, it has been critically limited clinical applications because of its many disadvantages, for example, low solubility in water, high toxicity, poor gastrointestinal absorption, and bioavailability. This review evaluates the toxicology, bioaccessibility, and pharmacology of the realgar used in Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines. In recent times, numerous types of realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed due to insolubility of realgar in water and different media. Most of the NPs of realgar possess the exclusive optical qualities of quantum dots. The pharmacological activities and bioavailability of realgar NPs are much more partial by their sizes, building realgar an exciting biomedical and pharmaceutical research applicant.
  1,109 612 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A modified technique for making putty-wash two-step impression
Sunil Kumar Mishra, Puja Hazari, Ramesh Chowdhary, Shail Kumari
January-June 2017, 2(1):55-58
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_4_17  
Background: If the impression thickness is uniform, stock trays can also give a better result when compared to custom trays. Purpose: This study aimed to obtain a uniform thickness impression with a modified putty-wash two-step technique. Materials and Methods: A chairside method of putty-wash two-step impression in a stock tray was made utilizing a wax spacer. Results: A uniform thickness impression was obtained in stock tray in quick time. Conclusion: The current article has given the options of using wax as spacer for making putty wash two step impressions for the fabrication of tooth-supported fixed restorations. Further research is required to find whether there is any dimensional inaccuracy caused in restorations due to usage of wax as a spacer.
  1,465 182 -
EDITORIAL
Citation impact: Manipulation and monopoly
Kusal K Das
July-December 2017, 2(2):67-68
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_34_17  
  809 800 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Toxicity studies of iron-containing ayurvedic drug Kasisa Bhasma
Satadru Palbag, Dhiman Saha, Dev Nath Singh Gautam
January-June 2016, 1(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183284  
Background: Kasisa is an important iron-containing mineral drug of ayurvedic Rasa Shastra and employs for various therapeutic uses in anemia, hair growth modulator, eye disorders, skin disorders, etc. Objective: In this study, shodhana was done by triturating in lemon juice and calcination was done by traditional heating arrangement with Kanji (sour gruel) method. Both the purified and calcined product of the Kasisa was subjected to histopathological and toxicological study to evaluate the safety of this iron-based ayurvedic medicine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult Charles Foster albino rats of either sex, 16 for each drug (Shodhita Kasisa, Kasisa Bhasma), were taken for the whole study. Toxicological study of the brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was performed. Results: Kasisa Bhasma at higher dose of 100 mg/kg showed some adverse effects in isolated organs of experimental animals, but the extent of damage is minimal compared to Shodhita Kasisa which showed adverse effects at 25-50 mg/kg. Conclusions: Kasisa Bhasma is nontoxic and safer as compared to Shodhita Kasisa. It can be administered at a controlled dose to affect therapeutic efficacy.
  1,429 177 1
Environmental factors other than iodine deficiency in the pathogenesis of endemic goiter in the basin of river Ganga and Bay of Bengal, India
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Debnath, Smritiratan Tripathy, Haimanti Goswami, Chiranjit Mondal, Arijit Chakraborty, Elizabeth N Pearce
January-June 2016, 1(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/2456-1975.183283  
Background: In iodine-replete basin of the river Ganga and the Bay of Bengal, we studied iodine nutritional status of school children by goiter prevalence and their urinary iodine (UI), iodine content in edible salt, and the bioavailability of iodine through water and its contribution to iodine nutrition. We also studied consumption pattern of common goitrogenic plants by measuring urinary thiocyanate (USCN), hardness of water (calcium and magnesium salt content) and assessed the effect of concomitant exposure of those environmental factors in goitrogenesis. Methods: 4603 children aged 6-12 years were examined for goiter by palpation, 520 urine samples were analyzed for UI and USCN; iodine content was estimated in 455 household salt and 130 water samples tested both for iodine and hardness. Results: The total goiter rate was 35.9%, median UI was 231 ΅g/l, mean USCN was 0.857 ± 0.48 mg/dl, iodine content in water was 44.7 ± 4.1 ΅g/l, 66.4% of salt samples contained iodine (15 ppm), and water was found to be hard. UI was correlated with both the drinking water iodine content and USCN and the degree of hardness in drinking water was associated with goiter prevalence. Conclusions: The studied population has endemic goitre despite iodine sufficiency. The concomitant exposure of a number of environmental factors, i.e., thiocyanate of cyanogenic plant food, hardness of drinking water, and excess iodine from environmental sources other than iodide salt are likely responsible for the causation and persistence of endemic goiter in the region.
  1,430 160 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Diagnosis of smokers' palate in a denture wearer patient
Shail Kumari, Sunil Kumar Mishra
July-December 2017, 2(2):125-126
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_18_17  
  1,427 120 -