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   2019| January-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 20, 2019

 
 
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EDITORIAL
Digital health in India – As envisaged by the National Health Policy (2017)
Suptendra Nath Sarbadhikari
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_8_19  
  556 92 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An exploratory study to assess the prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition among under-five children residing in selected rural areas of district Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh
Priyanka Devi, Simarjeet Kaur
January-June 2019, 4(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_14_19  
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition is one of the most essential things of life, and it becomes an integral part for the growth and development of body and maintenance of health. In rural areas of India, there is widespread undernutrition. AIM: This study aims to assess the prevalence and to explore the most probable risk factors influencing malnutrition among under-five children. SETTING AND DESIGN: A quantitative nonexperimental exploratory study design was conducted in selected rural areas of district Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 children and their mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique. Anthropometric assessment and semi-structured interview schedule was used as tool for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting was 40% and wasting was 19.5%. Maternal factors, birth characteristics, breastfeeding practices, environmental factors, and dietary practices affect malnutrition among under-five children. CONCLUSION: The recapitalization of the study suggests that there was high prevalence of malnutrition, and various risk factors are responsible for malnutrition among under-five children.
  233 93 -
Biochemical alterations in plasma total bile acid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in rabbits overdosed with ibuprofen and supplemented with guava leaf (Psidium guajava) extracts
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Precious Oluwamosope Okunola
January-June 2019, 4(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_24_18  
STUDY BACKGROUND: Ibuprofen is an analgesic and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug while Psidium guajava leaf has antioxidative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate plasma total bile acids (TBAs), creatinine, and electrolytes in rabbits overdosed with ibuprofen and supplemented with guava leaf (P. guajava) extracts. JUSTIFICATION: There exists a little information on the change in the plasma levels of TBA and electrolytes in ibuprofen toxicity supplemented with guava leaf extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen rabbits (weight – 0.8–1.4 kg; age – 1.5 ± 0.4 years, n = 5/group) were grouped into control (a); rabbits administered 1600 mg/KgBW of ibuprofen (B1) before being fed with 400 mg/KgBW of guava leaf aqueous extract (B2) and rabbits administered 1600 mg/KgBW of ibuprofen administration (C1) before being fed with 400 mg/KgBW of guava leaf methanolic extract (C2). Plasma creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate levels were determined using COBAS C111 chemistry autoanalyzer while TBA was determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in the plasma level of TBA, potassium, and creatinine in the rabbits following the administration of 1600 mg/KgBW of ibuprofen (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in the plasma TBA, potassium, and creatinine in the same rabbits when they were given 400 mg/KgBW of guava leaf extract following ibuprofen overdose (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a significant increase in the plasma values of TBA, creatinine, and potassium following the administration of ibuprofen possibly due to ibuprofen toxicity which was significantly reduced upon the administration of 400 mg/KgBW of guava leaf extract.
  221 63 -
CASE REPORTS
Retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa presenting with headache
Reddy Ravikanth
January-June 2019, 4(1):28-29
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_26_18  
Arachnoid cysts are benign, fluid-filled, cyst-liked malformations related to the arachnoid mater. Arachnoid cysts involving the posterior fossa are less common and exert local mass effect resulting in the symptoms and signs of cerebellar and brainstem dysfunction. Here, we present a case of a 14-year-old female with a retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst.
  231 17 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Studies on the trends of transfusion-transmissible infections in a district-level hospital in West Bengal, India
G Mukherjee, S Ghosh, A Mukherjee, T Mondal, S Mondal
January-June 2019, 4(1):17-19
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_46_18  
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic use of blood is the most sophisticated part of treatments in medical sciences. Transfusion of blood saves patients' lives as well as it has also the risk of infective disease, if it is contaminated. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The current study focuses on the status of TTI amongst the voluntary Blood donors over a period of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, HIV, HCV, HBsAg and Syphilis (by RPR) screening test report for the year 2011 to 2017 of a district Hospital Blood Bank in West Bengal has been presented. Tests were done by ELISA and Syphilis by Rapid Plasma Reagin test. RESULTS: No significant changes in the incidence of above noted cases have been observed and no Malaria positive case was detected. CONCLUSION: This indicates a good awareness amongst the people regarding these diseases having immense public health importance.
  172 55 -
MEDICAL EDUCATION TEACHING NOTE
Flipped classrooms in medical education: Tool to encourage self-directed and active learning
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
January-June 2019, 4(1):20-21
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_7_19  
The goal of medical education is to produce a competent graduate, who possesses all the skills to meet the needs of the society. Nevertheless, it is not new that most of the students are deficient in critical thinking and complex reasoning, which are must for a successful doctor. Out of the many approaches which have been tried upon, one among them is a flipped classroom, which is a hybrid approach (combination of classroom teaching and self-directed online learning outside the classroom). The advantage of the method is that it enhances the time available for active learning. Moreover, the method has its own limitations and they should be considered before planning such sessions. In conclusion, flipped classroom is a wonderful tool to integrate e-learning with the traditional learning and simultaneously help the medical students to become a self-directed learner.
  146 64 -
To pee and to poo: Cross-organ principles and mechanisms in renal and gastrointestinal physiology
Hwee-Ming Cheng, See-Ziau Hoe
January-June 2019, 4(1):22-27
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_21_19  
Cross-organ principles can be recognized and taught as an expression of the shared functional symmetry and common design in physiology. This integrated concept will help students to appreciate the unifying mechanisms that maintain the homeostatic balance in the body. In this article, the cross-organ similarities in gastrointestinal and renal physiology are extracted to aid learning and teaching. Some fun conversations between the Kiddo Urinary (U) and the Gastro Intestinal (I) are included to promote enjoyment in physiology.
  141 34 -
CASE REPORTS
Chondrosarcoma at the sinonasal region
Santosh Kumar Swain, Smrutipragnya Samal, Mahesh Chandra Sahu
January-June 2019, 4(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_1_19  
Chondrosarcoma is a rare and potentially lethal neoplasm and even rarer in the head-and-neck area. It is a very uncommon clinical condition at the sinonasal tract. The determination of this neoplasm depends on the histopathological consideration indicating harmful chondroid tissue multiplication. The prognostic elements for chondrosarcomas are grading of tumor and histological picture of tumor edges. The primary treatment of this tumor is radical surgery with wide safe margin. The other adjuvant treatments such as radiation and/or chemotherapy remain uncertain. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of myxoid chondrosarcoma. Here, we present a rare case of chondrosarcoma of a 48-year-old man presented with mass at the nasofacial region.
  110 24 -
Hyponatremia correction causing extrapontine myelinolysis
Binoy Damodar Thavara, Harsha Padikkal Veettil
January-June 2019, 4(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_19_19  
Rapid correction of hyponatremia will result in extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM). We report a case of 25-year-old male patient who presented with traumatic brain injury (TBI) causing left temporal extradural hematoma (EDH). EDH was managed conservatively. The patient had addiction to alcohol, tobacco smoking, paan (containing betel nuts), and some other addictive substances, details of which were not available. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and serum sodium were normal at admission. On the 7th and 8th days, serum sodium was 107 and 101 milliequivalent/liter (meq/l), respectively, but GCS was normal. Slow infusion of 3% sodium chloride 100 ml was given on the 7th day and 200 ml on the 8th day. However, serum sodium was raised to 128 meq/l on the 10th day. On the 11th day, GCS was deteriorated and the patient developed quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia T2-weighted hyperintensities suggestive of EPM. In severe hyponatremic patient, it is the rapid rise of serum sodium level which causes EPM. Rapid rise of serum sodium can occur even if hyponatremia was corrected with gradual addition of sodium. Consumption of alcohol and addictive substances contributed along with hyponatremia correction, to the development of EPM. Early detection of hyponatremia is the paramount factor in TBI to prevent the debilitating disease of EPM. MRI plays a crucial role in definite diagnosis of EPM.
  103 18 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Problems and pitfalls in PowerPoint® presentation
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-June 2019, 4(1):43-43
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_47_18  
  73 38 -
CASE REPORTS
Complicated Plasmodium vivax infection with malarial hepatopathy and splenic abscess
Priya Bansal, Ankit Gupta, Ravi Meena
January-June 2019, 4(1):39-41
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_16_19  
Malaria is a serious health burden in the tropical countries. Jaundice is a known manifestation of complicated falciparum malaria but is unusual with Plasmodium vivax infection. Only a few cases of vivax malarial hepatopathy have been reported till date. Here, we present a rare case of vivax malaria hepatopathy with secondary splenic abscess. No such case of dual complications of vivax malaria in the same patient has been reported till date to the best of our knowledge.
  79 14 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Advance organizers: An effective alternative to learning objectives in flipped classroom?
V Dinesh Kumar
January-June 2019, 4(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_42_18  
  60 22 -
Role of mobile-related health interventions in improving the delivery of maternal and child health services and their outcomes in low- and middle-income nations
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
January-June 2019, 4(1):46-47
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_9_19  
  58 19 -
Overarching challenges to be addressed before implementing competency-based medical education in India
V Dinesh Kumar, S S. S. N. Rajasekhar
January-June 2019, 4(1):44-45
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_5_19  
  49 23 -
Antifungal resistance: Implications for data policy and research
Saumyadipta Pyne, Meghana Aruru
January-June 2019, 4(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_23_19  
  43 17 -
Reject or accept letter
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-June 2019, 4(1):42-42
DOI:10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_44_18  
  37 16 -