|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 68-72
Menstrual marks: An evaluative study to assess knowledge and practices among urban and rural adolescent young females of Kanpur, India
Rohan Sachdev1, Kriti Garg2, Garima Singh3
1 Department of Public Health, UWA School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rama Dental College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pedodontics, Rama Dental College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||05-Feb-2020|
|Date of Decision||12-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Apr-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||08-Jul-2020|
Dr. Rohan Sachdev
117/K-68 Sarvodaya Nagar, Kanpur 20825, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
CONTEXT: Menstruation is a unique phenomenon for females. The beginning of menstruation is one of the most significant processes occurring among young females during the adolescent age.
AIMS: To assess and compare the real knowledge and practice regarding menstrual marks among adolescent urban and rural young females about menstruation.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Urban and rural adolescent school young females were selected as participants.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A school-based, cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from June to July 2019 among the adolescent school-going young females of Kanpur who were selected from two urban and five rural schools. All young females aged between 9 and 17 years who have attained menarche were selected and the sample size came out to be 530.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics-version 21. Descriptive statistics included the calculation of percentages. Categorical data were compared using the Chi-square test. All values were considered statistically significant for a value of P < 0.05.
RESULTS: 51.8% of rural young females participated in the study. Young females aged 12–14 years were the main participants, and 67.2% of rural and 80.3% of urban young females were aware of menstruation before menarche. Both group young females knew sanitary napkins which were statically significant (P < 0.001). Urban young females were found to be more aware of the menstruation cycle.
CONCLUSIONS: Hygienic exercise and knowledge during menstruation were disappointing in the rural area. Rural young females should be more educated about the traditional beliefs and misconceptions regarding menstruation.
Keywords: Adolescence, cleanliness, menstruation, rural, urban, young females
|How to cite this article:|
Sachdev R, Garg K, Singh G. Menstrual marks: An evaluative study to assess knowledge and practices among urban and rural adolescent young females of Kanpur, India. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2020;5:68-72
|How to cite this URL:|
Sachdev R, Garg K, Singh G. Menstrual marks: An evaluative study to assess knowledge and practices among urban and rural adolescent young females of Kanpur, India. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 28];5:68-72. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2020/5/1/68/289206
Preadulthood or adolescent (Latin, “Adolescere” = “to grow up”) is that the phase of the development of change, i.e., range among adolescence and adulthood, being characterized as 10–19 years by the World Health Organization.,, Adolescent populace contains one-fifth of the world's all out populace, and in India, 20.9% of the population comes into this age category., Hema et al., in their investigation, expressed a physiological improvement that occurs in adolescent females is that the beginning of menarche, may put the females in the trouble of unpredictable period, over the top dying, and dysmenorrhea, break in their social lives. Social prohibiting and standard certainty during the monthly period cycle and wavering of oldsters of not examining the associated issue transparently to their preadult little girls have restrained the entrance to operate the best possible sensibly insights about menstrual hygiene. Thanks to the nonattendance of satisfactory information, youthful females end up with repeat usage of unclean menstrual permeable fabrics prompt harboring of smaller-scale creatures that expand helplessness to urinary, perineal, vaginal, and pelvic infections.,
Ram et al. stated that these youthful females are tomorrow's adult females, and their conceptive well-being goals that they make today will influence the well-being and prosperity of their people in the future and the community. Indian culture, despite everything, thinks about feminine cycle as unclean forbidden and filthy thing. The route during which a youthful female gains information about feminine cycle cleanliness and associated changes influences her response to the event of menarche., The foremost standard social custom and limitations concerning monthly cycle among the youthful females are not going into the puja room and the kitchen as expressed by Kumar and Srivastava. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge and practice among urban and rural adolescent young females in Kanpur city.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
To evaluate and compare the knowledge and hygiene practice during menstruation, this cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed from June to July 2019 among the adolescent school-going young females of Kanpur who were selected from two urban and five rural schools. A total of 530 young females participated within the study, of which 275 belong to rural and 255 belong to urban schools. The current study was undertaken after getting clearance from the institutional human ethics panel and written consent permission from the varsity authority. All young females of the people aged 9–18 years who have attained menarche and were able to participate were selected. The category teachers of all young females were explained the aim of the study and harmonious relationship was built up with the participants and verbal yet written consent was obtained from them. Orientation was done to the participants concerning the questionnaire provided to them. The predesigned, pretested, and structured questionnaire included points about awareness on menstruation, source of knowledge, hygiene practiced during menstruation, and restricted activities practiced during menstruation, which got to participants with 15-min time to complete. At the tip of the given time, the questionnaire was collected from the young female participants for the study purpose and data evaluation.
Collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics-Version 21 (IBM Corp. Released 2012. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 21.0 Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp.). Descriptive statistics included the calculation of percentages. Categorical data were compared using the Chi-square test. All values were considered statistically significant for a worth of P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
Of 530 sample size, rural adolescent young females (51.8%) were more in number as compared to urban (48.1%) [Table 1]. In demographic variables of the study population, it is apparent that the age of study population 12–13 years rural young females were more 34.5% while only 25.4% urban females were in same age group and 31.3% were of 14-15 years of age group and maximum young females were of 9th class student. It is found that among rural participants, 58.9% of the adolescents' mothers were illiterate, whereas among urban participants, 85.4% mothers were found to be graduated which was just opposite to the rural mothers [Table 2].
[Table 3] shows the knowledge of participants on menstruation. 67.2% of rural and 80.39% of urban young females were attentive to menstruation before attending menarche, and the common age for menarche was found to be 13–14 years in both the study groups. The difference within the knowledge about menarche in the urban and rural region was statistically highly significant (P = 0.001). Mother was the most common and important source of information; 64.7% and 40.7% among rural and urban young females, respectively, which was also statistically significant (0.00). It was obvious from [Table 3] that 195 (70.9%) urban and 224 (87.8%) rural young females are considered menarche as a normal phenomenon. The difference within the reaction tofirst menses in the urban and rural region was statistically highly significant (P = 0.02). It also represented that more young females within the urban region (82.3%) were using sanitary pads as compared to young females within the rural area (59.6%), and this difference is additionally highly statistically significant (P < 0.001).
|Table 3: Distribution of girls according to knowledge about menstruation|
Click here to view
[Table 4] reveals the distribution of young females in keeping with the practice of menstruation and hygiene management, where 64% of rural young females stated that they modify but two pads per day which was reverse to the response of urban young females, i.e. 72.5% change over four pads per day. The difference within the hygiene practice among urban and rural regions was statistically highly significant (P = 0.003). Fifty-six percent of rural young females use cloth pieces, while 97.6% answered that they use sanitary pads; this difference was highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). This study found differences in hygienic practices in the urban and rural regions. 117 (42.5%) rural young females took bath but one time due to the lack of toilet facility, while 146 (57.2%) urban young females took bath over two times during the menstruation period and also had toilet facility, and this difference comes as statistically significant (P < 0.04).
|Table 4: Distribution of girls according to practice of menstruation and hygiene management|
Click here to view
In the present study, distribution of young females was done as per the restriction practices during the menstruation, and we came across that 19.6% and 20.3% of urban young females did not attend any religious occasion and not attend school, respectively, whereas in rural young females, this percentage was little higher as 56% and 29.4%, respectively, which the difference was found to be highly statistically significant (P < 0.02) [Table 5].
| Discussion|| |
The menstruation period could be a typical physiological shape process showing the start of regenerative life; however, now, it is considered as messy unthinkable inside the Indian society. Inadequate, wrong data in regard to feminine period cycle are generally a root of pointless limitations inside the standard ordinary life of the bleeding youthful females creating distinctive mental issues; hence, to assess and compare the Kanpur adolescent females' knowledge and practices, the present study was performed. This study shows that the majority of rural and concrete young females were alert to menstruation before menarche which was opposite to the study done by Paria et al., where 123 (44.72%) were urban and 80 (30.07%) were rural young females. Within the other study conducted by Jothy and Kalaiselvi, it was reported that 40 (42.5%) rural and 41 (55.4%) urban young females were aware of menstruation before the beginning of menarche. Similar study conducted in Nagpur by Patle and Kubde found that 63.38% of young females in the geographical region were alert to menstruation before menarche as compared to 47.57% of young females in a geographic region. Within the present study, young females were alert to menstruation before menarche; mother was the primary informant within the case of 178 (64.7%) rural and 104 (40.7%) urban young females which was found contrary to the study done by Paria et al. where mother was the most source of knowledge about menstruation in 91 (73.98%) urban and 65 (81.25%) rural young females. A study tired Nagpur supported our present study's findings where mothers were the primary informants for 71.33% of the young females. In our study, 38 (14.9%) urban young females were informed by internet source, which was found similar to the study conducted among schoolgirls in Egypt by El-Gilany et al., who observed that mass media was the most source of knowledge about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers.
Most of the young female participants stated menstruation as a standard body condition which is comparable to the review conducted by Paria et al., where 114 (21.07%) young females believed menstruation as a standard physiological process. Similar results were seen within the study conducted in Rajasthan by Khanna et al., where 82.15% young females, and Dasgupta and Sarkar observed that 86.25% of young females believed it to be a physiological process., The present study observed that more young females in the geographical region used commercial sanitary pads whereas maximum young females within the geographic region were using homemade sanitary pads, like the study observed by Paria et al., where 176 (64%) in the rural geographical region and 120 (45.11%) in the urban geographic region used sanitary pads and 99 (36%) girls within the urban and 146 (54.89%) young females within the geographic region were using homemade sanitary pads. This rural–urban difference in using sanitary pads is extremely statistically significant (P = 0.001). Patle and Kubde showed in their study that the employment of sanitary pad was higher among young females in urban schools (50%) compared to rural (19%). Within the study by Narayan et al., it was found that only 1.7% of young females within the geographic region and 8.3% of young females within the urban areas used commercially available sanitary pads. Devi K Det al. found that just about all the young females were using old cloth as menstrual absorbent. Hence, during this study, the employment of sanitary pads was higher in urban than those observed in other studies. The more common availability of sanitary pads nowadays may well be the rationale for this finding. This study also shows that 55 (20%) rural girls preferred cloth pieces instead of sanitary pads as menstrual absorbent. Within the present study, more urban young females change sanitary pad quite four times per day as compared to rural young females who were not changing frequently. Paria et al. in their study observed that in 75 (27.27%) young females in urban and 81 (30.45%) young females in the geographic region, the frequency of fixing the pads was just once per day. Present study found that hygienic practices are more satisfactory within the geographical region as compared to rural ones (P = 0.003). It was also found within the study done by Patle and Kubde that hygienic practices are more satisfactory within the geographical region (62.03%) as compared to the agricultural (43.40%). The various aspects of poor personal hygiene such as not changing pads regularly were because of lack of separate facility present in house.
This study revealed various varieties of restrictions followed during menstruation. 19.6% and 20.3% of urban young females were not allowed to attend the religious activity and got attend school, while the share was higher in rural young females, i.e. 56% and 29.4%, respectively. Paria et al. found that 76.96% and 10.67% of urban young females failed to attend any religious occasion and to attend school, whereas in rural young females, this percentage was little higher as 78.57% and 17.70%, respectively. Thakre et al. showed that 73.64% of girls and Dasgupta and Sarkar found that 85% of girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation.,
| Conclusions|| |
Menstrual imprints rely upon the instructional exercise and financial and social surroundings of the family. School educational program assumes a significant job in menstrual well-being. Inside the present examination, information concerning the monthly cycle was more in urban juvenile youthful females when contrasted with rustic. Sterile works on during the feminine cycle were unsuitable inside the geographic district when contrasted with the land locale youthful females. Subsequently, young people of all ages will be trained by developmental programs at school in addition to the substantial facts of the feminine process, its hormonal activation, and legal sterile use during the menstrual period in the public domain. It is fundamental to bring preadult youthful females out of standard trust of networks, old taboos, and confusions during the conventional physiological condition of youthful shape, with the help of online life, sex training at school educational plan, and gathering conversations among families.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Savanthe AM, Nanjundappa VH. Menstruation: A cross-sectional study on knowledge, belief, and practices among adolescent Girls of Junior Colleges, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016;5:22-27.
WHO. Young people today. In: The Health of Young People: A Challenge and Promise. Geneva: WHO; 1993. p. 1-14.
Bej P. Adolescent health problems in India: A review from 2001 to 2015. Indian J Community Health 2015;27:419-428.
Hema PS, Partha N, Seetharaman N, Ramya MR, Nishanthini N, Lokeshmaran A. A study of menstrual hygiene and related personal hygiene practices among adolescent girls in rural Puducherry. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:2348-55.
Kumbhar KS. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls (14–19 yrs) of Kadapa district and its impact on quality of life: A cross sectional study. Natl J Community Med 2011;2:265-8.
Garg R, Goyal S, Gupta S. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: Subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges. Matern Child Health J 2012;16:767-74.
Ram R, Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya K, Baur B, Sarkar T, Bhattacharya A, et al
. Reproductive tract infection among female adolescents. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:32-3. [Full text]
Dasgupta A, Sarkar M. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl? Indian J Community Med 2008;33:77-80.
] [Full text]
Sadiq MA, Salih AA. Knowledge and practice of adolescent females about menstruation in Baghdad. J Gen Pract 2013;2:138.
Kumar A, Srivastava K. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Soc Work Public Health 2011;26:594-604.
Thakre SB, Thakre SS, Reddy M, Rathi N, Pathak K, Ughade S. Menstrual hygiene: Knowledge and practice among adolescent school girls of Saoner, Nagpur district. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:1027-33.
Paria B, Bhattacharyya A, Das S. A comparative study on menstrual hygiene among urban and rural adolescent girls of West Bengal. J Family Med Prim Care 2014;3:413-7.
] [Full text]
Jothy K, Kalaiselvi S. Is menstrual hygiene and management an issue for the rural adolescent schoolgirls? Elixir Soc Sci 2012;44:7223-8.
Patle R, Kubde S. Comparative study on menstrual hygiene in rural and urban adolescent girls. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2014;3:129-32.
El-Gilany AH, Badawi K, El-Fedawy S. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt. Reprod Health Matters 2005;13:147-52.
Khanna A, Goyal RS, Bhawsar R. Menstrual and reproductive problems: A study of adolescent girls in Rajasthan. J Health Manag 2005;7:91-107.
Narayan KA, Srinivasa DK, Pelto PJ, Veerammal S. Puberty rituals, reproductive knowledge and health of adolescent schoolgirls in South India. Asia Pac Popul J 2001;16:225-38.
Devi KD, Ramaiah PV. A study on menstrual hygiene among rural adolescent girls. Indian J Med Sci 1999;48:139-43.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]