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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-34

Combined effect of Kinesio taping and exercises on pain and function in individuals having patellofemoral pain syndrome with different grades of obesity


1 Dr. D.Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Abhinav Bindra Targetting Performance, Bhubneshwar, Odisha, India

Date of Submission08-Jul-2020
Date of Decision28-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance18-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication08-Apr-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pranita Khose
Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bjhs.bjhs_66_20

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: Obesity causes an excess amount of weight on the knee joint and promotes abnormal functioning of the joint. Correction with Kinesio taping allows forces to act in the correct direction. This study was conducted to see the combined effectiveness of Kinesio taping and exercises among different grades of obese population with anterior knee pain.
METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted on obese individuals with anterior knee pain. Thirty-six participants were divided into three groups as per three grades of obesity. All the groups received the same treatment, Kinesio taping, and exercises. Participants received treatment three times a week for 4 weeks. The Visual Analog Scale and Kujala Scale were taken as outcome measures.
RESULTS: Data were analyzed using Primer statistical software. A paired t-test was applied for within-group analysis, and one-way ANOVA was applied to compare data between the groups. All the groups showed a significant reduction in the pain score and improvement in function (P < 0.005). However, no statistically significant difference was seen for both outcome measures when comparing the three groups.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that exercising and Kinesio taping are together effective in the treatment of anterior knee pain. This combined protocol was effective in restoring the knee function and reducing knee pain in all the three groups.

Keywords: Exercising, Kinesio taping, Kujala Scale, obesity, patellofemoral pain syndrome, Visual Analog Scale


How to cite this article:
Gohil DM, Khose P, Patra C, Baxi G, Palekar TJ. Combined effect of Kinesio taping and exercises on pain and function in individuals having patellofemoral pain syndrome with different grades of obesity. BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2021;6:31-4

How to cite this URL:
Gohil DM, Khose P, Patra C, Baxi G, Palekar TJ. Combined effect of Kinesio taping and exercises on pain and function in individuals having patellofemoral pain syndrome with different grades of obesity. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 28];6:31-4. Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2021/6/1/31/313361



Obesity is a globally recognized noncommunicable disease.[1] Increased weight-bearing causes abnormal loading on the knee joint leading to changes in the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of articular surfaces.[2] Studies have shown that weight loss reduces pain and also leads to improvement in physical function.[3]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is the most common cause of knee pain. Its prevalence ranges from 15% to 45%.[4] Knee pain is seen in 25% of the population complaining of musculoskeletal pain. The high rates of increased knee pain are directing toward the restriction of joint function mobility hampering the quality of life.[5] It is explained with the propagation of anterior knee pain due to activities that load the joint such as squatting, running, climbing, and descending stairs. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is seen to be causing a major impact on the growing population and, more significantly, adolescents and young active adults.[4]

Anterior knee pain is commonly treated in medical centers. It is majorly present in the anterior aspect of the knee and is reversed by resting. Knee pain is quite familiar; the main conditions remain to patellofemoral pain syndrome and joint degeneration. The amount of pain increment is supposed to be the actions of repetitive day-to-day life activities.[5]

The patellofemoral articulation is termed as the extensor mechanism. It increases the angle of pull of the quadriceps tendon. During flexion and extension, the reverse pull is managed by the quadriceps muscle. Patella helps in the moment arm by separating the quadriceps tendon from the joint axis. The hamstrings are effective in contracting, while both muscles tend to lengthen at the same period at the hip.[6]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is seen to be causing a major impact on the growing population and, more significantly, adolescents and young active adults.[4] Anterior knee pain is found to be susceptible in individuals physically active as well has nonactive. Many a times, the pain is not harmful and takes 24 months to recruit completely.[2]

Kinesio tapes encourage the circulation of blood fluids. It decreases the compressive forces acting on the joint and reduces friction between the joint surfaces. It also gives a bracing effect in order to help the joint to bear the large forces acting due to repetitive strenuous action.[5] Correction due to Kinesio taping will allow the forces to act in the correct direction. It helps in correction of the biomechanics of the joint structure which was hampered by the unwanted forces.[7]

The Kujala Scale is a 13-item screening instrument designed to assess patellofemoral pain. It has been widely used to identify and study the prevalence of patellofemoral knee pain.[8] This is reported to have a high reliability and validity.[8],[9]

This study was conducted to explore the effect of exercises and Kinesio taping on patellofemoral knee pain in individuals with different grades of obesity.


  Methodology Top


Ethical clearance was taken from the institutional ethical committee before commencement of the study. Pretreatment outcome measures pain and Kujala score were taken. Obese individuals in the age group of 35–50 years having unilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study by convenience sampling. Individuals with any history of knee ligament or meniscal injury, recent fracture of the hip, knee, or ankle within the past 1 year, or having any neurological condition were excluded from the study. They were allocated into three groups as per body mass index (BMI): Group A – Grade 1 obesity, Group B – Grade 2 obesity, and Group C – Grade 3 obesity. There were 13 participants selected in each group. Each group had 1 dropout. Outcome measures were reassessed after four weeks and the results were compared. All the groups were given exercise training and Kinesio taping for 3 times a week for 4 weeks and for 20–25 min/session. The details of exercises are given in [Table 1].
Table 1: Exercises given during the 3 weeks

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Kinesio tape was applied from the lateral border of the patella, pulling it medially and upward over the medial femoral condyle. A patient was asked to remove the tape before coming for the next session. Taping was continued for 4 weeks. Participants were asked to report if they felt any skin irritation after tape application. [Figure 1] shows the application of Kinesio tape.
Figure 1: Taping for anterior knee pain

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  Results Top


Data analysis was done using Primer statistical software (Version 7, Stanton A Glantz 2011 McGraw-Hill, United states). The paired t-test was applied for pre- and postanalysis within groups for the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Kujala Scale values. To analyze the data between the three groups, one-way ANOVA was applied.

[Table 2] shows the pre- and postintervention pain scores on VAS. All the three groups showed a significant reduction in the pain score on comparing the intragroup pre- and postscores (P < 0.005). However, on comparing all the three groups, no statistically significant difference was seen (P > 0.05).
Table 2: Visual Analog Scale scores of Groups A, B, and C

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[Table 3] shows the pre- and postintervention Kujala Scale scores. All the three groups showed a significant improvement in the scores on comparing the intragroup pre–post scores (P < 0.005). However, on comparing all the three groups, no statistically significant difference was seen (P > 0.05).
Table 3: Kujala Scale scores of Groups A, B, and C

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  Discussion Top


Obesity is tending to spread wide over the world. The WHO states from 2008 show that 1.4 billion adults are overweight, and of these, more than 200 million men and 300 million women are obese. Obesity has a high tendency to associate with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Research has shown that people with a BMI >30 kg/m2 were 6.8 times higher risk to land with anterior knee pain rather normal individuals. The incidence of patellofemoral pain is more common nowadays due to the elevated levels of obesity.[10]

The VAS was taken as an outcome measure to assess the pain intensity. Pre- and postvalues were taken for each group. Pain is an important concern for all patients with anterior knee pain, which is caused by structures surrounding the patella. Kinesio tape was first invented by a Japanese chiropractor in 1970.[11],[12] Kinesiology taping produces mechanical deformation of tissues underneath the tape in humans and may generate visible convolutions of skin when applied to certain areas of the body.[13] Kinesio taping is a widely adapted technique for anterior knee pain. Previous studies carried out using K taping have also shown a reduction in pain scores.[14],[15] Kinesio taping has been shown to be effective in reducing pain and improved single foot jump distance.[16] The condition arising due to anterior knee pain often causes restriction and disability of joint to function correctly. Quality of life is found to be effective due to tremendous pain, less muscle stability, and weakness. Strenuous activities lead to more damage to the anatomical structure of the joint.[11] Kinesio taping has been shown to be effective in reducing pain, swelling, and muscle spasms, as well as to prevent sports injury.[12],[17]

The Kujala Scale was used to measure the improvement in knee function. It is a specific scale for the patellofemoral function which includes 13 questions related to common functional activities regularly performed by the knee joint. The Kujala Scale is reliable in detecting functional changes.[8]

The findings of this study also support that exercises and Kinesio taping together are effective in the treatment of anterior knee pain. Irrespective of the grade of obesity, the combined protocol was found to be effective in restoring knee function and reducing knee pain.


  Conclusion Top


The findings of this study show that exercise and Kinesio taping together were effective in the treatment of anterior knee pain and improvement of function in all grades of obesity.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sowers MR, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA. The evolving role of obesity in knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2010;22:533-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
King LK, March L, Anandacoomarasamy A. Obesity & osteoarthritis. Indian J Med Res 2013;138:185-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Rogers MW, Wilder FV. The association of BMI and knee pain among persons with radiographic knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:163.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Manoharan A, Selvaraj P, Ramachandranath VA. Prevalence of anterior knee pain in 20-40 years old adults attending ortho OPD in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu. Int J Orthop 2016;2:244-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Banejad M, Sarmadi A, Maddadi F. Effects of short term and long term usage of patellar kinesio taping on patellar position in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Rehabil Sci Res 2016;3:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kisner C, Colby LA, Borstad J. Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques. Daryaganj, New Delhi: Fa Davis; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Castrogiovanni P, Di Giunta A, Guglielmino C, Roggio F, Romeo D, Fidone F, et al. The effects of exercise and kinesio tape on physical limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2016;1:355-68.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ittenbach RF, Huang G, Barber Foss KD, Hewett TE, Myer GD. Reliability and validity of the anterior knee pain scale: Applications for use as an epidemiologic screener. PLoS One 2016;11:e0159204.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Dammerer D, Liebensteiner MC, Kujala UM, Emmanuel K, Kopf S, Dirisamer F, et al. Validation of the German version of the kujala score in patients with patellofemoral instability: A prospective multi-centre study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018;138:527-35.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Park JS, Yoon T, Lee SH, Hwang NK, Lee JH, Jung YJ, et al. Immediate effects of kinesiology tape on the pain and gait function in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019;98:e17880.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Karamitabar A, Shahali S, Dadgo M, Mansor Sohani S, Ghorbanpour A, Abrishamkarzadeh H, et al. The effect of kinesio tape on knee pain and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis–A randomized clinical trial. Funct Disabil J 2019;2:27-36.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kocyigit F, Turkmen MB, Acar M, Guldane N, Kose T, Kuyucu E, et al. Kinesio taping or sham taping in knee osteoarthritis? A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2015;21:262-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Fu TC, Wong AM, Pei YC, Wu KP, Chou SW, Lin YC. Effect of kinesio taping on muscle strength in athletes-a pilot study. J Sci Med Sport 2008;11:198-201.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Campolo M, Babu J, Dmochowska K, Scariah S, Varughese J. A comparison of two taping techniques (kinesio and mcconnell) and their effect on anterior knee pain during functional activities. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2013;8:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Akbaş E, Atay AO, Yüksel I. The effects of additional kinesio taping over exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2011;45:335-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Freedman SR, Brody LT, Rosenthal M, Wise JC. Short-term effects of patellar kinesio taping on pain and hop function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Sports Health 2014;6:294-300.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Banerjee G, Briggs M, Johnson MI. The effects of kinesiology taping on experimentally-induced thermal and mechanical pain in otherwise pain-free healthy humans: A randomised controlled repeated-measures laboratory study. PLoS One 2019;14:e0226109.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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