LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2017  Volume
: 2  Issue : 2  Page : 123124
Three pioneers behind statistical methods commonly used in biomedical research
Himel Mondal^{1}, Shaikat Mondal^{2}, ^{1} Department of Physiology, M.K.C.G. Medical College, Ganjam, Odisha, India ^{2} Department of Physiology, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Correspondence Address:
Dr. Himel Mondal Department of Physiology, M.K.C.G. Medical College, Ganjam  760 004, Odisha India
How to cite this article:
Mondal H, Mondal S. Three pioneers behind statistical methods commonly used in biomedical research.BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2017;2:123124

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Mondal H, Mondal S. Three pioneers behind statistical methods commonly used in biomedical research. BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Nov 26 ];2:123124
Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2017/2/2/123/220935 
Full Text
Dear Sir,
“If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment” – Rutherford.[1] This statement is perfectly suited for today's biomedical researches. Statistics has become an integral part of most biomedical researches. From the planning stage to analysis of results, statistics is inseparable. If we think about a single page of collected data without proper organization, it gives us no idea. For summarizing and analyzing scientific measurements, statistical methods have been introduced.[2]
At present, statistical analysis has become a click away for the advancement of computerbased programs. We can easily calculate and analyze data without actually doing the massive calculation. However, the programs are based on the principles which were introduced and studied extensively and still being studied for further improvement. Introducing all the pioneers who contributed for improvement of statistical methods is beyond the scope of this letter. However, we intended to mention three pioneers whose names are being used in the name of statistical methods used frequently in biomedical researches with a hope that this information would trigger researchers to read more about the history and life of those titans.
Continuous variable of two data sets is tested with Pearson's correlation and it is named after British mathematician and statistician Karl Pearson [Figure 1].[3],[4],[5] The term “correlation” was introduced by Francis Galton (1822–1911) and Pearson worked lifelong on the theory and application of regression and correlation. In majority of today's research, “standard deviation” is invariably used for data analysis. It was Pearson who introduced the term in 1894. Another breakthrough in 1900 was derivation of Chisquare test for goodness of fit.[6]{Figure 1}
Be it unpaired or paired, Student's ttest is widely used for analyzing data to compare the mean of two groups. Student was the pen name of William Sealy Gosset who was born in England [Figure 1].[3],[4],[5] He joined “Arthur Guinness Son and Co,” a brewer company in 1899. He studied statistics in Pearson's Biometric Laboratory for 2 years (1906–1907). There, he solved his own problem of small sample statistics. However, the company did not want to reveal the secret to be published openly. Hence, Gosset used his pen name as “Student” in the publication. That is why we use the name “Student” for ttest. Gosset also worked in the area of analysis of variance (ANOVA), but Fisher got attached to ANOVA more than Gosset.[7]
The “F” of Ftest is the first letter of Ronald Aylmer Fisher [Figure 1].[3],[4],[5] He is also a British and was born in London. His experiments in the agricultural field and biological data were published in the book “The Design of Experiments” in 1935. In this book, he described the test of significance. From then onward, research workers were using fixed P values (P < 0.05). However, Fisher warned (1956) against the rigid rules of taking P < 0.05. He was the man who indicated that null hypothesis can never be proved, but is possibly disproved.[8] And this is the cornerstone in research where hypothesis is tested statistically.
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References
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3  Karl Pearson by Elliott & Fry. Available from: http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/usethisimage.php?mkey=mw160880. [Last accessed on 2017 July 05]. 
4  British Statistician William Sealy Gosset, Known as “Student”, Taken in 1908; (User Wujaszek on pl.wikipedia.org). Available from: https://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Sealy_Gosset#/media/File: William_Sealy_Gosset.jpg. [Last accessed on 2017 July 05]. 
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