BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43--48

Phytochemical and high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of Ashawattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) Kaanda Twaka (outer portion of stem bark) Churna (powder)


Pravin Jawanjal1, Prashant Bedarkar1, Biswajit Patgiri1, VJ Shukla2,  
1 Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Head Pharmaceutical Lab, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pravin Jawanjal
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
India

Abstract

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical constituent and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of Ashawattha Kandatwaka (the outer portion of stem bark) Churna (powder). INTRODUCTION: Ashawattha Kandatwaka Churna is a major constituent of numerous ayurvedic formulations. The plant has possessed their various pharmacological activities such as antifungal, anthelmintic, hypoglycemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, and wound healing activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed on authenticated plant materials following standard procedures. The methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus religiosa Linn. was used for the HPTLC study. Toluene (9 ml) and ethyl acetate (1 ml) were used for stem bark of F. religiosa Linn. as a mobile phase. RESULTS: Identification of alkaloids, steroids, and amino acids was confirmed through the phytochemical parameter. In the HPTLC study, the Rf values obtained at 254 nm were 0.02 and at 366 nm were 0.01, 0.17, and 0.53, respectively. CONCLUSION: Physiochemical analysis including HPTLC of Ashawattha Kaanda Twaka Churna will help in further standardization.



How to cite this article:
Jawanjal P, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B, Shukla V J. Phytochemical and high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of Ashawattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) Kaanda Twaka (outer portion of stem bark) Churna (powder).BLDE Univ J Health Sci 2021;6:43-48


How to cite this URL:
Jawanjal P, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B, Shukla V J. Phytochemical and high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of Ashawattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) Kaanda Twaka (outer portion of stem bark) Churna (powder). BLDE Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 May 12 ];6:43-48
Available from: https://www.bldeujournalhs.in/text.asp?2021/6/1/43/313354


Full Text



Ficus religiosa Linn. is an ethnomedicinal tree used in Ayurveda. The tree is a large perennial tree, found throughout India up to 170 m altitude in the Himalayas, largely planted as an avenue and especially near temples.[1] F. religiosa L. is a long-lived, evergreen, ornamental, and fuelwood tree and is widely found wild or cultivated throughout India, Bangladesh, China, Ceylon, and Thailand. It is heavily branched with long-tipped, long-petiolated, leathery, heart-shaped leaves and is very popular as a shade tree.[2] Ashawattha has huge medicinal purposes that are mentioned in ayurvedic authentic classics texts F. religiosa Linn. belonging to the Moraceae family. Kanda Twaka (outer portion stem bark) of Ashawattha is important and used to prepare ayurvedic different dosage forms. The formulations are Panchavalkaladi Kwatha,[3]Nalpamaradi taila, Marma gutika, Mutrasangrahniya kashay churna, and Nyagrodhadi churna.[4] The stem bark is reported to possess an aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, astringent, antidote, antiseptic, antibacterial, bone fracture, diabetes, burns, diarrhea, dysentery, cooling, gonorrhea, gastrohelcosis, paralysis, and hemorrhoids.[5] The stem bark and leaves of F. religiosa have reported phytoconstituents of tannins, phenols, steroids, stigmasterol, lanosterol, and lupen-3-one. The active constituent from the root bark F. religiosa was found to be β-sitosterol-D-glucoside, and the seeds contain β-sitosterol, phytosterolin, and its glycoside, albuminoids. The fruit of F. religiosa contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid.[6] The leaves can be used to alleviate bleeding wounds, fevers, constipation, bruises, dysentery, boils, and mumps.[7] The aim of the present study is the determination of physicochemical characters, phytochemical constituent along with to develop the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of the outermost part of the stem of F. religiosa Linn.

 Materials and Methods



Identification and authentication

The sample was the outer portion stem of F. religiosa Linn. Samples were collected by the first author from the Botanical Garden of GAU, Jamnagar, in April 2018. The outer portion of the stem of F. religiosa Linn. was considered for the present study and the thickness of the part 2 cm. Authentication of the outer portion stem bark of F. religiosa Linn. was done in the pharmacognosy laboratory of IPGT and RA., Jamnagar. The physicochemical study, phytochemical constituent along with HPTLC fingerprint of the outer portion of stem bark of F. religiosa Linn., was conducted in the laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry of IPGT and RA, Jamnagar.

Preparation of powder

For powder analysis, to obtain the powder, the cut pieces of the outer portion of the stem of Ficus religiosa Linn. were shade dried under the natural condition for 8 to 10 days. After that, the cut pieces were grounded by the mechanical grinder and sieved through 80#.[8]

Organoleptic evaluation

Evaluation of sample was done by various organoleptic characters like color, texture, odor, taste and so forth of its powder. Observations were done directly by sensory organs.[9]

Physicochemical parameters

The powder of outermost part of stem bark of Ficus religiosa Linn. was exposed to physicochemical parameters, i.e. pH, loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water-soluble extractive value, and alcohol soluble extractive value; protocols followed as recommended by active pharmaceutical ingredient.[10] For qualitative analysis, the presence of various secondary metabolites dissolved in alcohol extract was done.[11]

High-performance thin-layer chromatography

The methanol extract of the outermost part of stem bark of F. religiosa Linn. was used for HPTLC study. The methanol extract of stem bark of F. religiosa Linn. was spotted Linn. precoated silica gel GL60254 aluminum plate as 10 mm bands by means of a CAMAG Linomat V sample applicator fitted with a 100 μL Hamilton syringe. Toluene (9 ml) and ethyl acetate (1 ml) were used for stem bark of F. religiosa Linn. as a mobile phase. The development time was 30 min. After development, densitometry scanning was performed with a CAMAG TLC scanner III in reflectance absorbance mode at 254 nm and 366 nm under control of WinCATS software (V1.2.1. CAMAG).[12],[13]

 Results



Physicochemical parameters and qualitative phytochemical parameters

Organoleptic evaluation

The powder was reddish-brown with a characteristic slightly aromatic odor, astringent in taste, and coarse fibrous in texture and is mentioned in [Table 1] and [Figure 1].{Figure 1}{Table 1}

Physicochemical parameters

The results of physicochemical parameters show that foreign matter was absent and other values are loss on drying of root 9.24% w/w, ash value 9.07% w/w, acid-insoluble ash 30.8% w/w, water-soluble extractive1.6 w/w, alcohol-soluble extractive 2.16, and pH (5% suspension in water) 5.2 [Table 2].{Table 2}

Qualitative analysis of alcohol extracts of the outer portion of the stem

Qualitative analysis of methanol of the outer portion of the stem revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and amino acids [Table 3].{Table 3}

High-performance thin-layer chromatography study

The methanol extract of the outer portion of the stem was shown 1 peak and 3 peaks and UV visible range of 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. The Rf values are presented in [Table 4], and the photographs and peak display are shown in Plate 4. The Rf values obtained at 254 nm were 0.01 and at 366 nm were 0.01, 0.17, and 0.53, respectively [Table 4] and [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7],[Figure 8],[Figure 9].{Figure 2}{Figure 3}{Figure 4}{Figure 5}{Figure 6}{Figure 7}{Figure 8}{Figure 9}{Table 4}

 Discussion



The physicochemical analysis of the outer portion of the stem of F. religiosa Linn. provides substantial information for the proper authentication and scientific evaluation of the drug. The results of physicochemical parameters show that foreign matter was absent and other values are loss on drying of root 9.24% w/w, ash value 9.07% w/w, acid-insoluble ash 30.8% w/w, water-soluble extractive 1.6 w/w, alcohol-soluble extractive 2.16, and pH (5% suspension in water) 5.2 [Table 2], whereas in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the bark of F. religiosa Linn. shows foreign matter not more than 2%, total ash not more than 7%, acid-insoluble ash not more than 0.3%, alcohol-soluble extractive not <8%, and water-soluble extractive not <9%.[14] As the outer portion of the stem of F. religiosa Linn. was reported to be the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, and steroids. The result of the loss on drying indicates that 8.89% of the outer portion of the stem material was volatile. Total ash indicates that the sample taken has 8.96% of inorganic material in it. Only 6.80% of the drug sample was found to be soluble in water and 3.36% was in methanol. The pH is 5.2, which indicates that the sample taken was slightly acidic. The Rf values obtained from HPTLC of the outer portion of the stem of F. religiosa at 254 nm was 0.02 and at 366 nm were 0.01, 0.17, and 0.53, whereas in Verma et al. study, the Rf values obtained from TLC of stem including heartwood reported as 0.14, 0.28, 0.41, 0.56, 0.65, and 0.71.[4] Qualitative analysis of methanol of the outer portion of the stem revealed the presence of saponin, steroid, tannins, and phenols. From there, it can be revealed that the outer portion and middle heartwood portion may vary in chemical constituent.

 Conclusion



Physiochemical analysis including HPTLC of the outermost part of stem of F. religiosa Linn. will help in further standardization and identify and quantify the specific compounds which have specific medicinal activity.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank the Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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