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Is WHO guideline value of arsenic in drinking water 10 ppb in the developing countries safe to drink?
Dipankar Chakraborti
January-June 2016, 1(1):57-57
  7 4,615 301
Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles kill virulent multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: A mechanistic study
Balaram Das, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Debasis Mandal, Jaydeep Adhikary, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Satyajit Tripathy, Aditi Dey, Subhankar Manna, Sankar Kumar Dey, Debasis Das, Somenath Roy
July-December 2016, 1(2):89-101
Background: Due to abuse and improper prescribing policy of antibiotics, the antibiotics resistance were remarkably increased in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, so there are urgently need to develop a new kind of antimicrobial to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have showed its interesting impact against bacterial infection drawn researchers to green nanotechnology. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of AgNPs against multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from urine sample of UTI patients. Methods: 126 UTI patent's urine samples were included in the study. P. aeruginosa strains were isolated, identify, antimicrobial susceptibility, drug resistance mechanisms were done as per routine laboratory protocol. The antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of the killing of Ag NPs were studied. Results: From this study, it was revealed that 25 (19.84%) isolates were multi drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Green synthesized Ag NPs successfully destroyed the multi drug resistant strains via ROS generation and membrane damage. The prevalence of multidrug resistance is increased worldwide and there are urgently need another option to control the multidrug resistant strains. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that Ag NPs might be used to treat the multi drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  6 14,140 458
Extended longevity at high altitude: Benefits of exposure to chronic hypoxia
Gustavo R Zubieta-Calleja, Natalia A Zubieta-DeUrioste
July-December 2017, 2(2):80-90
BACKGROUND: Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia can give rise to acute mountain sickness, and rarely, high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema. However, with gradual adaptation to “chronic hypoxia”, following the Adaptation to High Altitude Formula (Adaptation = time / altitudeΔ), the organism does remarkably well. High altitude residents are perfectly adapted to their environment. The cities of La Paz (3100–4100 m) and El Alto (4100 m) stand as living proof of this with 2.7 million inhabitants living perfectly normal lives, undisturbed by hypoxia and most even unaware of its existence. All the cells of the organism adapt to a lower arterial oxygen arterial partial pressure (PaO2) and likewise to a lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), an essential component that linked to an increased compensatory hemoglobin explain the paradox of increased “tolerance to hypoxia” at high altitude. METHODS: We reviewed the > 70 years old population historic records of the official Bolivian registration service SEGIP. Two groups were analyzed: those greater than 90 years of age, and those greater than 100 years of age according to the different altitude departments in Bolivia. RESULTS: As the altitude increases, the longevity increases. Santa Cruz at 416m and La Paz at 3800m (average), both with around 2.7 million inhabitants each, have 6 versus 48 centenarians respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Life under chronic hypoxia is not only tolerable, but also is, in fact, favorable to improve or treat many pathological conditions such as asthma, coronary artery disease, obesity and even giving rise to improved longevity. Sea level residents (when compared to high altitude residents) suffer a disability: poor tolerance to hypoxia.
  6 7,066 507
Relative importance of inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukins-6) in neonatal sepsis
Satyaki Das, Jaydeb Ray
January-June 2016, 1(1):20-24
Objective: Early diagnosis and treatment decreases the mortality and morbidity of neonatal sepsis(NS). The aim of this study was to find out the level of different inflammatory markers in neonatal sepsis. Methods: Forty two term neonates with non-sepsis (n = 17), clinical (n = 10) and proven (n = 15) sepsis were evaluated. Blood cultures were obtained and ESR, CRP, procalcitonin, IL-6 levels were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to look for association between NS and different inflammatory markers and to compare the strength of association among the markers. Findings: Among the 42 neonates, CRP level was found to be elevated in 27 neonates, ESR in 22 neonates, both procalcitonoin and IL-6 in 24 neonates respectively. Both sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin and IL-6 were high compare to CRP. Conclusions: Blood culture significantly increases the proven sepsis status among neonates with suspected sepsis. ESR is a poor predictor of NS. Newer inflammatory markers namely procalcitonin and IL-6 were found to have greater value than CRP, but not ESR.
  4 2,875 344
Anti-leukemic activity of betulinic acid from bulk to self-assembled structure
Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Parimal Karmakar, Somenath Roy
January-June 2016, 1(1):14-19
The Ziziphus jujuba tree is one of the major sources of betulinic acid (BA). After isolation, the bulk structure of the compound was converted to a self-assembled nanofibers (SA-BA) configuration which showed better anti-leukemic efficacy than its bulk form. After internalization in leukemic cells, SA-BA elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion which ultimately activated apoptosis pathway. The SA-BA showed potent ameliorative role against acute chemotherapeutic toxicity induced by doxorubicin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes through the mechanism totally opposite to said pathway. Thus, SA-BA showed cell specific distinct effects. It was also revealed that the SA-BA had potent immunomodulatory affected on T cells and macrophages by polarizing the cytokine balance toward Th1 at a slightly higher dose. SA-BA arrested the growth of in vivo cancer by increasing the CD4 + cells in associated with increased cytotoxic T-cell response. SA-BA was also selectively internalized in folate receptor overexpressing leukemic cells. For this purpose, folic acid (FA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conjugated on the nanostructured of SA-BA. After internalization, the conjugate (FA-PEG-SA-BA) diminished the cellular redox system and generated an excess amount of ROS which induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated cell death through activation of caspase 8 and 3 cascade system. Throughout all these studies, no toxic effects of the conjugates toward normal cells were observed. Thus, the whole study enlightens the multifunctional role of SA-BA in different aspects of anti-leukemic therapy which may be useful in future treatment policies.
  4 2,215 304
Environmental factors other than iodine deficiency in the pathogenesis of endemic goiter in the basin of river Ganga and Bay of Bengal, India
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Debnath, Smritiratan Tripathy, Haimanti Goswami, Chiranjit Mondal, Arijit Chakraborty, Elizabeth N Pearce
January-June 2016, 1(1):33-38
Background: In iodine-replete basin of the river Ganga and the Bay of Bengal, we studied iodine nutritional status of school children by goiter prevalence and their urinary iodine (UI), iodine content in edible salt, and the bioavailability of iodine through water and its contribution to iodine nutrition. We also studied consumption pattern of common goitrogenic plants by measuring urinary thiocyanate (USCN), hardness of water (calcium and magnesium salt content) and assessed the effect of concomitant exposure of those environmental factors in goitrogenesis. Methods: 4603 children aged 6-12 years were examined for goiter by palpation, 520 urine samples were analyzed for UI and USCN; iodine content was estimated in 455 household salt and 130 water samples tested both for iodine and hardness. Results: The total goiter rate was 35.9%, median UI was 231 ΅g/l, mean USCN was 0.857 ± 0.48 mg/dl, iodine content in water was 44.7 ± 4.1 ΅g/l, 66.4% of salt samples contained iodine (15 ppm), and water was found to be hard. UI was correlated with both the drinking water iodine content and USCN and the degree of hardness in drinking water was associated with goiter prevalence. Conclusions: The studied population has endemic goitre despite iodine sufficiency. The concomitant exposure of a number of environmental factors, i.e., thiocyanate of cyanogenic plant food, hardness of drinking water, and excess iodine from environmental sources other than iodide salt are likely responsible for the causation and persistence of endemic goiter in the region.
  3 2,523 271
Impact of theoretical courses on physical health performance
Mohammed Zerf
January-June 2016, 1(1):44-48
Background: Physical activity, health fitness, and academic results are very important goals in student life. However, success lies in academic subjects in educational establishments. Our background reveals the contradictions between two philosophers who approved the importance of physical education (PE) as a component of the curriculum and others who reiterated that PE and sports would never be a component of the curriculum as is the case in Algerian universities. Methods: The research samples were selected by the intentional manner which included sixty students, aged around 18 years. Twenty girls who will pass the baccalaureate, twenty girls of the 1 st year department languages, and twenty girls of the 1 st year PE and sports for the academic year 2014-2015 were included in the study. They were tested based on the field tests developed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Results: Our results confirm that the absence of PE lessons and sport case department languages leads to loss of fitness in the opposite of high-school and students of the Institute of Sports, where the effects return to the absence of the session of physical education and sport. Conclusion: Physical activities are very important in the life of our scholar girls, where the sport practice is a physical as well as a mental effort which is the key to a healthier life.
  3 1,909 164
Shelf life evaluation of Shirishavaleha: A preliminary study
Harmeet Kaur, Galib Ruknuddin, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
July-December 2016, 1(2):120-124
Context: Shelf life of the drug can be considered up to the period it gets deteriorated and does not get any alteration in its physicochemical state. Every product has definite shelf life, which depends on various physical, chemical, environmental, and biological factors. Ancient seers have clarified shelf life of various compound formulations. However, there is a need to revalidate and ascertain the shelf life of individual formulations by following parameters prevalent in respective scenario. Aim: To evaluate shelf life of Shirishavaleha prepared in the presence of water (SW) and Kanji (SK) as liquid media through accelerated stability study. Subjects and Methods: Physicochemical parameters were measured at 40°C ± 2°C temperature and 75% ±5% relative humidity. Analysis was repeated at intervals of 1, 3, and 6 months, and average 10% degradation of both the test drug samples was calculated and extrapolated to find the shelf life. Results: The sample prepared in the presence of Kanji (SK) showed more extractive values and sugar contents and found to have longer shelf life (2.6 years) than SW (1.4 years). Conclusion: Shirishavaleha prepared with Kanji (SK) is comparatively more stable than the sample prepared with water (SW).
  3 1,690 225
Biologicals in the treatment of psoriasis: The Indian perspective
Ajit B Janagond, Aparna Palit
January-June 2017, 2(1):9-13
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder characterized by itchy erythematous papules and plaques topped with silvery white scales. It has a chronic relapsing course and is associated with significant morbidity and reduction in the quality of life. Therapy of psoriasis is challenging. Topical therapy forms the first line of treatment for stable plaque psoriasis affecting a limited body surface area and in extensive disease systemic agents are indicated. All these drugs have inherent side effects, and none bring prolonged remission of the disease. The other therapeutic modality for psoriasis is phototherapy, but it is delivered through a specialized machine which can be available only at referral centers. Biologics have revolutionized the management of psoriasis as they can bring a remission of disease up to several years. Although limited availability and high cost prohibit their regular usage, Indian dermatologists are rapidly adopting biologics in the treatment of psoriasis.
  3 3,608 411
Competency-based medical education: Need of the hour: Let's do our bit…!!
Anita Herur, Sanjeev Kolagi
January-June 2016, 1(1):59-60
  2 4,172 586
Immunohistochemical study of p53, Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor, and sex-determining region Y-box 2 in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue
Pallavi D Bhayekar, Vandana L Gaopande, Avinash R Joshi, Amruta B Jadhav
July-December 2016, 1(2):102-107
Objective: Tongue cancer (TC) is one of the most common oral cancers. Prognostic evaluation of this tumor includes histologic grade and TNM stage. In this study, we evaluated the expression of p53, Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) and correlated it with the clinicopathologic variables to assess their potential for use as prognostic markers. We compared the p53 positive and negative group. Design: A retrospective and prospective study with 45 cases of biopsy proven TC which were studied for the expression of p53, Ki-67, EGFR, and SOX2. The results were correlated with known clinicopathologic variables using Chi-square test. The p53 positive and negative groups were compared. Materials and Methods: Archieved blocks of biopsy proven TC were retrieved. Using 4 micron sections of the blockes immunostaining for p53, Ki67, EGFR and SOX2 was done. Results: P53 expression was 68.9%, Ki-67 was 88.9%, EGFR was 48.9%, and SOX2 was 35.6%. Expression of p53 and Ki-67 did not show any correlation with any of the clinicopathologic variables. There was a statistically significant association between EGFR expression and lymph node (LN) positivity (P = 0.001). Stage of tumor and SOX2 positivity showed a significant correlation (P = 0.03). The comparison of p53 positive and negative groups did not reveal a significant difference. Conclusion: p53-negative TC is not significantly different from the p53-positive TC at presentation. The absence of mutant p53 in more than 30% TC points toward the possible etiological role of human papillomavirus in TC. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the possible use of EGFR for prediction of LN metastasis and SOX2 as a prognostic marker.
  2 2,832 280
A pilot study examining the effects of faculty incivility on nursing program satisfaction
Dana Todd, Dina Byers, Katy Garth
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-13
Uncivil behavior in the classroom threatens the teaching-learning process. Research to date has focused on nursing student incivility in academia with little research examining the faculty role associated with incivility. Due to the lack of research examining faculty incivility toward nursing students, additional research in this area is indicated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of faculty incivility on nursing students' satisfaction with their Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN) nursing program in a rural Southeastern state. Quantitative data was collected via surveys. Research questions included: (1) What percentage of senior nursing students report experiencing faculty incivility? (2) What is the relationship between faculty incivility and nursing students' ratings of program satisfaction? (3) In what educational settings does perceived incivility toward nursing students occur? (4) How do nursing students respond to perceived faculty incivility? The results of this survey revealed that 35.3% of students had at least one nursing instructor that put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience. Furthermore, 20.7% reported that two or more faculty put them down or were condescending toward them. Collectively, the pilot study revealed that over half of the participants reported faculty behaving in a way that was perceived as uncivil. Incivility in the nursing profession has been an on-going problem. The high number (over half) of participating students reporting that they perceived that at least one nursing instructor had put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience raises additional concerns for the level of civility in nursing programs and the role modeling that is presented to students. It is imperative that nursing faculty and students interact professionally and establish effective communication patterns.
  2 10,957 417
Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review
Vineet Sharma, Narendra Kumar Singh, Dev Nath Singh Gautam
July-December 2016, 1(2):69-72
Realgar has been not only well-known poisons but also used as healing agent. Realgar has long been used in traditional medicines for different diseases; so far arsenic can be extremely toxic and carcinogenic. In Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines arsenic usually comes from conscious addition for healing purposes, mostly in the form of mineral arsenicals with orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenic trioxide (As2O3). Pharmacological studies revealed that realgar is effective against in different cancer cell line. However, it has been critically limited clinical applications because of its many disadvantages, for example, low solubility in water, high toxicity, poor gastrointestinal absorption, and bioavailability. This review evaluates the toxicology, bioaccessibility, and pharmacology of the realgar used in Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines. In recent times, numerous types of realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed due to insolubility of realgar in water and different media. Most of the NPs of realgar possess the exclusive optical qualities of quantum dots. The pharmacological activities and bioavailability of realgar NPs are much more partial by their sizes, building realgar an exciting biomedical and pharmaceutical research applicant.
  2 2,323 1,115
Digital health in India – As envisaged by the National Health Policy (2017)
Suptendra Nath Sarbadhikari
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-6
  1 2,693 310
Behavioral, biochemical, and pathological alterations induced by electromagnetic radiation in Sprague-Dawley rats
Subramani Parasuraman, Stephanie Wong Kah Yee, Bobby Lau Chik Chuon, Lee Yu Ren
January-June 2016, 1(1):61-63
  1 1,597 246
Flipped classrooms in medical education: Tool to encourage self-directed and active learning
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
January-June 2019, 4(1):20-21
The goal of medical education is to produce a competent graduate, who possesses all the skills to meet the needs of the society. Nevertheless, it is not new that most of the students are deficient in critical thinking and complex reasoning, which are must for a successful doctor. Out of the many approaches which have been tried upon, one among them is a flipped classroom, which is a hybrid approach (combination of classroom teaching and self-directed online learning outside the classroom). The advantage of the method is that it enhances the time available for active learning. Moreover, the method has its own limitations and they should be considered before planning such sessions. In conclusion, flipped classroom is a wonderful tool to integrate e-learning with the traditional learning and simultaneously help the medical students to become a self-directed learner.
  1 1,082 202
Stability study of Kumari (Aloe vera [L.] burm.) Swarasa (juice) with respect to baseline microbial diagnostic modalities
Pravin Jawanjal, MS Cholera, Prashant Bedarkar, BJ Patgiri
July-December 2019, 4(2):60-65
BACKGROUND: Swarasa, one of the most popular Kalpana among five basic Kalpana, is widely used therapeutically as well as pharmaceutically. A clear description of Swarasa is available in all Samhitas regarding its preparation, and utility. AIMS: This study aims to carry out the stability of Kumari Swarasa with respect to its microbial profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample of Kumari Swarasa was prepared and studied to check microbial contamination at regular intervals. RESULTS: Five samples were subjected to the microbiological study from the date of the preparation to the date of last microbiological study. No, any contaminations were found in the microbiological study in the range of minimum of one day and a maximum of three days after preparation of sample. DISCUSSION: Hence, the present study was carried out to observe the stability study of Kumari Swarasa with respect to microbial contamination of samples prepared and preserved in different climatic and temperature conditions. Thus, a baseline microbial profile was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, it was found that shelf life of Aloe vera juice was varied as per humidity and temperature. CONCLUSION: The microbiological study of Kumari Swarasa shows its stability in the range of a minimum of one day and maximum of three days after the preparation of the sample.
  1 1,504 193
Evaluation of endophytic fractions of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. roots for hepatoprotective activity in rats
Smita D Madagundi, Poonam Kothli, Prasanna V Habbu, Venkatrao H Kulkarni
July-December 2016, 1(2):113-119
Objectives: Endophytes are major originators of new bioactive compounds with fascinating pharmacological activities. In this study, a perusal was done for isolation, characterization, and screening of endophytic bacteria of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn (BDEF) root for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Methods: BDEF was isolated from the roots and grown in nutrient agar media aseptically. The grown bacteria was further fermented in nutrient broth and extracted using chloroform (CBD) and ethyl acetate (EABD). CBD and EABD were assayed for free radical scavenging properties against 2, 2 diphenyl 1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, and reducing power. Findings: The highest inhibition was exhibited in EABD with IC50 level of 22.86 μg/ml for DPPH and 82.78 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, respectively. Further, CBD and EABD (100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The results revealed that CBD and EABD (200 mg/kg p.o.) restored the biochemical parameters, against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity to the normal values. The altered lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were also restored by EABD (200 mg/kg p.o.). BDEF was studied for rDNA sequencing by polymerase chain reaction technique. The endophytic bacterium was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its morphological and molecular characterization. Conclusions: CBD and EABD fractions have exhibited antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
  1 1,777 200
Prostate biopsy in a rural hospital: Our experience
Suresh K Jariwala
January-June 2017, 2(1):18-21
Aims: We have seen middle-aged and elderly patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or retention of urine in our hospital. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were done for workup. Prostate biopsy (PB) was done whenever indicated. We wanted analysis of PB in our rural setup. Materials and Methods: The study period includes from January 2008 to May 2012 and January 2015 to May 2016. Any patient aged 45 years or more presenting with LUTS or retention of urine was included in the study. PSA and DRE were done in all patients. Inclusion criteria were abnormal DRE or PSA ≥4 ng/ml. Exclusion criteria were immunocompromised status, coagulopathy, urinary tract infection, acute prostatitis or abscess, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or previous biopsy. Histopathology report was noted. Statistical Analysis: No special software was used. Author used his arithmetical skill learned in school days to do analysis. Results: One hundred and thirty-four patients were included in the study. Average age was 69 years. PSA ranged from 1 to 1700, average being 65.3 ng/ml. Prostate cancers (PCs) was found in 65 cases. Adenocarcinoma of prostate was found in 54 cases, average PSA being 110.8 ng/ml. Small cell PC (SCPC) found in 11 cases, average PSA being 55 ng/ml. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was found in six cases, average PSA being 18.8 ng/ml. Conclusion: PC is not uncommon in India. Patients present in advanced stages and with high PSA values. Transrectal ultrasound-guided 12-core systematic PB is the standard to confirm diagnosis of PC. Incidence of SCPC is high in our series. They presented with high PSA values. This need further study.
  1 1,505 212
A modified technique for making putty-wash two-step impression
Sunil Kumar Mishra, Puja Hazari, Ramesh Chowdhary, Shail Kumari
January-June 2017, 2(1):55-58
Background: If the impression thickness is uniform, stock trays can also give a better result when compared to custom trays. Purpose: This study aimed to obtain a uniform thickness impression with a modified putty-wash two-step technique. Materials and Methods: A chairside method of putty-wash two-step impression in a stock tray was made utilizing a wax spacer. Results: A uniform thickness impression was obtained in stock tray in quick time. Conclusion: The current article has given the options of using wax as spacer for making putty wash two step impressions for the fabrication of tooth-supported fixed restorations. Further research is required to find whether there is any dimensional inaccuracy caused in restorations due to usage of wax as a spacer.
  1 3,948 377
Is it possible to avert arsenic effects on cells and tissues bypassing its toxicity and suppressive consequences of energy production? A hypothesis
Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey
July-December 2017, 2(2):91-96
Arsenic, a sulfhydryl reactive metalloid, found primarily in two forms: arsenite and arsenate, causing several human health problems, is considered as a dreaded agent against public health. It mainly spreads through groundwater contamination and affects human mainly through drinking water. Arsenic contaminated groundwater is now a major threat in some parts of India (the river basin of Ganga and Brahmaputra) and Bangladesh. The current authors belong to the region where arsenic poisoning and its consequences are spreading in an uncontrolled way. We are helpless to stop the spreading of geogenic groundwater arsenic contamination at present. Although most of the research on arsenic removal from drinking water and on toxicity profile has been carried out, very few preventive measures have been reported till date to balance the arsenic-induced cellular energy deficiency and oxidative stress-mediated cell death and cellular senescence. And, therefore, we need to think about alternative remedial to address such problems, which propel us to propose the current hypothesis that the adverse effects of energy imbalance due to arsenic toxicity in cells could be dodged by intake of moderate amount of alcohol. While pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is blocked by arsenic, glucose cannot be utilized through Kreb's cycle. However, alcohol can produce energy by bypassing the aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production machinery. In addition, arsenic poisoning incurs cellular oxidative stress which needs to be scavenged further. So to meet this secondary problem, we also suggest consuming red grape juice (a potent antioxidant and cytoprotective agent) in addition to alcohol (as per International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) Drinking Guidelines) in our second part of the hypothesis. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the red wine which contains moderate amount of alcohol and high levels of red grape polyphenols, galic acid, resveratrol, and other antioxidants could be the best alternative to tackle the arsenic-induced cellular aging, senescence, and death.
  1 3,607 270
Role of endometrial cytokines of the female genital tract tuberculosis in the context of infertility
Abira Datta, Anjana Ray Chaudhuri, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Rajib Gon Chowdhury, Basudev Bhattacharya
January-June 2018, 3(1):24-30
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, one of the most common vulnerable sites of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is female genital tract tuberculosis (FGTB) leading to infertility. As FGTB produce clinical symptom quite late, its detection is very difficult to the health-care providers and according to some experts in this field; FGTB has no confirmatory investigation procedure. FGTB can cause other form of reproductive failure through ectopic pregnancy, tubal block, and implantation failure. Their presence may alter the cytokines level in endometrium. METHODS: A total of 300 cases in our clinic had undergone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of tubercle bacillus (TB-PCR). Among of them, 91 individuals fulfilling all inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. In our study, we measured cytokines, two from pro-inflammatory group (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-10) and three from inflammatory group (IL-2, interferon gamma [IFNγ], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]). RESULTS: Out of 91 participants, 45 (49.46%) cases were TB-PCR positive, and 46 (50.55%) cases were TB-PCR negative. It has been observed that the value of IL-10 and TNFα did not fit any statistical parameter. The result showed that pro-inflammatory indicators IL-6 and inflammatory indicators IL-2 and IFNγ had significant different values between TB-PCR- positive and TB-PCR-negative groups. P value of this cytokines has statistically significant. CONCLUSION: From our study, we conclude that cytokine study was undertaken, of which IFNγ showed a possibility to become an important clinical indicator of endometrial hostility followed by IL-2.
  1 1,752 248
Comparison of efficacy of Kabat rehabilitation and facial exercises along with nerve stimulation in patients with Bell's palsy
Kanwal Khanzada, Muhammad Junaid Ijaz Gondal, Muhammad Mustafa Qamar, Ayesha Basharat, Waqas Ahmad, Sajid Ali
January-June 2018, 3(1):31-35
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the role of Kabat rehabilitation and facial exercise techniques with nerve stimulation common in both for Bell's palsy treatment and its effectiveness in improving physical and social function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized control trial conducted at the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Two equal Groups (A and B) consist of 26 patients each. Patients were employed Kabat rehabilitation technique in GroupA and with facial exercise in Group-B. Patients in both treatment groups were followed until 3 weeks and improvement in Sunnybrook facial grading scale (SFGS) and facial disability index (FDI) scale were recorded at the end of treatment. RESULTS: In this study, 52 patients were enrolled into the study. At the end of 3 weeks, more improvement was seen in SFGS in Group-A (81.58 + 11.321) versus Group-B (63.77 + 21.645). Similarly, the improvement in physical and social function on FDI in Group-A was more than Group-B (>0.05). CONCLUSION: Kabat technique is more effective as compared to facial exercise technique in improving physical and social function.
  1 7,528 1,073
Integration of yoga in modern healthcare system: A dream to reality
Satadru Palbag
January-June 2018, 3(1):9-11
Yoga means union of the soul of the individual with the supreme consciousness. It is a 5000-year-old Indian source of wisdom whose importance is accepted by the whole world. India has taken several important steps to amalgamate the tradition of yoga with everyday life through implementation in student's physical training program to inclusion in modern healthcare system. This minireview will throw light over the development of integration of yoga in several diversified fields and its positive outcome.
  1 1,962 214
Strategies for enhancing quality of life in thalassemic children
K Kavitha, A Padmaja
July-December 2017, 2(2):69-74
Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the reduction or absence in the synthesis of the globin chains of hemoglobin. Worldwide, approximately 15 million people are estimated to suffer from this disease and 300 million carriers born every year. The carrier rate for β-thalassemia varies from 1% to 17% in India. The prevalence is very high among certain communities and is emerging as a major public health problem in India but received little attention. Due to the chronic nature of the disease, thalassemic children need long-term treatments such as blood transfusions and chelation therapy. Hence, these children need repeated hospitalization, forgo schooling, and cannot perform day-to-day activities including play. This may affect the quality of life (QoL) in these children. The nursing strategies for enhancing QoL include providing a network of care, supportive strategies, positive coping mechanism, ongoing assessment, prevention of complications, and empowering the children with thalassemia and their parents. The future hopes are unrelated cord blood stem cells, gene therapy. To conclude, a comprehensive approach toward the care of children with thalassemia can increase the level of QoL among these children. The review search was done through Google engine, PubMed as well as scholarly articles from printed journals, and books.
  1 3,080 1,318
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